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Entomology: UGA Honey Bee Program: Bees, Beekeeping, and Pollination

Pollination: Table of Insecticides and Miticides

Table1 of common insecticides and miticides and their relative risk to honey bees. Never spray during bloom periods unless it is absolutely necessary. If treatment is unavoidable, choose a product with a high LD50 and short residual. If a more toxic chemical is required, choose a residual under 8 hours and spray at night.

Active Ingredient

Trade Names

Risk Class2

LD503

Residual4

acephate

Orthene

I

1.2

1 day to >3 days

aldicarb

Temik

I

0.35

>1 day to >2 days

azinphos methyl

Guthion

I

0.43

2 days to >5 days

Bacillus thuringiensis

Biobit, Cutlass, Dipel, Javelin, Thuricide

III

NA

<2 hours

carbaryl

Sevin

I

1.5 to 26.5

<2 hours to 12 days

chlorpyrifos

Dursban, Lorsban

I

0.11

5 hours to 6 days

cyhexatin

Plictran

III

NA

<2 hours

cypermethrin

Ammo, Cymbush

III

NA

<2 hours to >3 days

diazinon

Diazinon

I

0.37

<1 day to 2 days

dicofol

Kelthane

III

NA

<2 hours

dicrotophos

Bidrin

I

0.3

1 day to 1 days

diflubenzuron

Dimilin

III

NA

<2 hours to 6 hours

dimethoate

Cygon, De-fend, Rebelate

I

0.19

<2 hours to >3 days

disulfoton

Di-syston

II

6.12

<2 hours to 7 hours

endosulfan

Thiodan

II

7.8

<2 hours to 1 day

ethion

Ethion oil

III

NA

<2 hours

fluvalinate

Mavrik

III

65.8

<2 hours

fonofos

Dyfonate

II

8.68

<2 hours to 6 hours

formetanate hydrochloride

Carzol

II

9.2

<2 hours to 2 hours

lindane

Lindane

I

NA

>2 days

malathion

Cythion, Malathion

I

0.73

<2 hours to 5 days

methamidophos

Monitor

I

1.37

4 hours to 1 day

methidathion

Supracide

I

0.24

day to 3 days

methomyl

Lannate

I

1.29

<2 hours to >1 day

methoxychlor

Marlate, Methoxychlor

III

NA

<2 hours

methyl parathion

Penncap-M

I

0.11 to 0.24

<1 day to >7 days

mevinphos

Phosdrin

I

0.3

<2 hours to <5 hours

naled

Dibrom

I

0.49

2 hours to >1 day

oxamyl

Vydate

II

10.3

<2 hours to 12 hours

oxythioquniox

Morestan

III

NA

<2 hours

parathion

Parathion

I

0.18

10 hours to >1 day

permethrin

Ambush, Permethrin, Pounce

I

0.16

12 hours to >3 days

phorate

Thimet

II

10.25

<2 hours to 5 hours

phosmet

Imidan

I

1.13

8 hours to >3 days

profenofos

Curacron

II

3.46

<2 hours to 9 hours

propargite

Omite, Ornamite

III

NA

<2 hours

sulprofos

Bolstar

II

7.22

<2 hours to >1 day

thiodicarb

Larvin

II

7.08

<2 hours

trichlorfon

Dylox, Proxol

III

NA

<2 hours to 6 hours


  1. Table modified from Johansen & Mayer (1990) and Delaplane (1993).
  2. Risk classes: I = highly toxic to honey bees, II = moderately toxic to honey bees, III = relatively nontoxic to honey bees. The risk class is closely associated with the LD50.
  3. LD50 = the Lethal Dose required to kill 50% of the test honey bees, expressed in micrograms per bee. The smaller the LD50, the more toxic the product.
  4. Period of residual toxicity to honey bees after application. Evening applications of products with residuals of 8 hours or less generally cause only moderate harm to bees, even if the LD50 is small. For example, mevinphos is very toxic to bees, but because it has a short residual, it is fairly safe for early evening applications.

 

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