The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
Your source for pest management and pesticide news
April 2003/Volume 26, No. 4
Now that spring has arrived, we begin to receive calls about mosquito control and mosquito-borne diseases like West Nile virus
FOOD QUALITY PROTECTION ACT AND REREGISTRATION
revised risk assessment for carbaryl is available; comments are due
by June 2
As of December30, 2003, wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) may not be used in residential settings
HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT
will be a Georgia Clean Day Collection on April 22 in Putnam
Quebec adopted a new pesticide regulation that bans synthetic pesticides in all daycare facilities and schools
you have a good idea to reduce pesticide risks or improve IPM, here
is some grant money for you
Non-profit and State organizations and Tribes in EPA Region 4 are eligible for EPA Strategic Agricultural Initiative Grants
According to AgrowWorld Crop Protection News, 2002 agrochemical sales were essentially flat worldwide at around $28 billion
A new kit to help reduce childhood poisonings is available for free
March 19, 2003, farm worker organizations and farm worker advocates
criticized the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for not strengthening the
Worker Protection Standard
The EPA has issued guidance for data required to meet the North American Free Trade Agreement standard for pesticide residues on food
President George W. Bush commended pest management professionals for their efforts to protect the public health and property of Americans during the April observance of National Pest Management Month
The EPA plans to revoke the exemptions for watermelon mosaic virus-2 coat protein, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus coat protein and specific portions of the viral genetic material when used as plant-incorporated protectants in squash.
The national IPM meeting provided some interesting opportunities and information.
Now that spring has arrived, we begin to receive calls about mosquito control and mosquito-borne diseases like West Nile virus. We think this brief summary of a publication from the Annals of Internal Medicine by Mark S. Fradin, MD will help you. You can find read the entire article at http://www.acponline.org/journals/annals/01jun98/mosquito.htm
[My comments appear in italics.]
Products that contain DEET remain the most effective insect repellent available. In combination with permethrin-treated clothing, protection approaches 100 percent. Some toxic reactions to DEET have occurred in rare situations (usually involving misuse). Do not use DEET on very small children, and always follow label directions. Repellents based on plant-derived compounds are less effective. Avon Skin-So-Soft provided some protection from mosquitoes, but DEET products provided greater protection. Bug zappers and ultrasonic devices do not help control mosquitoes. Bug zappers can help control indoor flies; ultrasonic devices are useless for pest control. Ultrasonic devices, outdoor bug "zappers," and bat houses are not effective against mosquitoes. Oral antihistamines can ease allergic symptoms to bites, but they do not prevent disease transmission.
A number of factors determine how effective a repellent will be. How frequent and uniform were the repellent applications? The user must apply the repellent to all exposed skin; mosquitoes will attack unprotected areas only a few centimeters from the repellent. Clothing can rub repellent from the skin. Sweat, rain, high temperatures, and wind can remove repellent from the skin. The type and number of mosquitoes can also reduce efficacy of repellents.
Although mosquitoes are largely regarded as a nuisance in the United States, the insects remain a worldwide scourge because of disease transmission. Mosquitoes transmit disease to more than 700,000,000 people annually; mosquito-transmitted diseases will cause the death of nearly 6 percent of all people alive today! According to the World Health Organization, malaria alone causes up to 3,000,000 deaths each year.
Mosquitoes (a type of fly) are found on every continent except Antarctica. There are about 170 species in North America; the genera Anopheles, Culex, and Aedesare responsible for most bites in humans. There are approximately 170 species of mosquitoes in North America alone.
Mosquitoes must have standing water reproduce. Various species of mosquitoes have adapted to fresh water; salt water marshes; brackish water; or water found in containers, old tires, or tree holes. The female mosquito lays eggs on the water's surface or in areas subject to flooding. In some species, the unhatched eggs will remain viable for months without water. Once in the water, the eggs hatch in a few days. The larvae eat organic matter in the water until they pupate (about a week). The pupal stage usually lasts 2-3 days. The adult mosquitoes live 3-4 weeks.
Adult male mosquitoes eat flower nectar; females require a blood meal to produce eggs. The females will feed and lay eggs about every 3-4 days. Some species of mosquitoes bite mostly at night; others feed primarily at twilight or at night. Various species prefer to feed on humans, and other species prefer other animals.
The chance of mosquito transmission of HIV is estimated to be less than 1 in 10 million. The virus does not survive or replicate in mosquitoes. Additionally, the blood from the last person to be bitten is not pumped into the next person.
Mosquitoes locate their host with visual, thermal, and olfactory cues. Mosquitoes that feed during the day may be more attracted to movement or dark clothing. Carbon dioxide and lactic acid also attract mosquitoes. Many more chemicals are also released from the human body; these compounds may also be important for mosquitoes to find a host. Scents from some perfumes or other personal care products may also attract mosquitoes. Mosquitoes seem to use skin temperature and moisture for close-range cues; some mosquito species prefer a particular part of the body, such as the head or feet.
You may hear a friend say, "Mosquitoes just love me." There seems to be some evidence for this phenomenon. Mosquitoes are more likely to bite adults than children, but older adults may become less attractive. Men are preferred to women (the biting mosquitoes are females). Larger people attract more mosquitoes because they are a larger target or produce more attractive cues.
Choosing a Repellent
The most effective repellent, DEET, is available in many products in concentrations ranging from 5-100 percent. In general, higher concentrations offer longer protection, but the formulation is also important. A 35 percent DEET polymer formulation by the 3M Corporation was as effective as 75 percent DEET in repelling mosquitoes. Depending on the environmental conditions and the mosquito species tested, the polymer formulation gave 95 percent protection for 12 hours. In most situations, products with 10 percent to 35 percent DEET will provide adequate protection. Sunscreens may reduce DEET effectiveness.
The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommend product with more than 10 percent for children. You should not use DEET products on children under 3 years of age. Products above 50 percent should only be used when biting pressure is high and other factors (e.g., high temperature) may cause rapid loss of the repellent. In any case, wash the repellent from the skin when outdoor activities are completed. Applying DEET products to clothing instead of skin will reduce the risk of toxicity; if clothing treated with DEET is stored in a plastic bag, the repellent effect may last for weeks. DEET products can damage some plastics and some synthetic fibers.
DEET is absorbed through the skin, but documented cases of toxicity are rare. From 9-56 percent of the applied dose may absorbed; the average dermal absorption of 100 percent DEET was reported to be 5.6 percent; for 15 percent DEET in ethanol, the average absorption was 8.4 percent. DEET was absorbed quickly within two hours of application. Absorbed DEET was largely eliminated from the body in 12 hours.
The most serious toxic effects of DEET have involved the brain. Thirteen of the 14 cases involved children under eight years old. Three children died. Many of these cases involved the misuse of DEET products. The most common symptom reported to professionals was related to spraying repellent in the eye or inhaling a DEET product.
The revised risk assessment for carbaryl is available; comments are due by June 2. The EPA is concerned about agricultural worker exposure to carbaryl. According to the EPA assessment, many of the occupational handler and post-application worker exposure scenarios are unacceptable, even if workers use maximum personal protective equipment and clothing. Also, the current 12-hour re-entry interval may not be sufficient for most crops. The carbaryl risk assessment and related documents explain these exposures of concern in detail. You can find the assessment at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/carbaryl/
As of December 30, 2003, wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) may not be used in residential settings. The EPA order affects virtually all residential uses of wood treated with CCA, including play structures, decks, picnic tables, landscaping timbers, residential fencing, patios, and walkways/boardwalks. Consumers may continue to buy and use the treated CCA wood for as long as it is available. For now, CCA may still be used to treat wood used in permanent wood foundations and fence posts. More information on CCA treated wood is available at: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/chemicals/1file.htm (EPA Press Advisory 3-20-03)
There will be a Georgia Clean Day Collection on April 22 in Putnam County. They will accept almost any type of unwanted pesticide. Contact the Putnam County Extension office (706-485-4151) for details.
Quebec adopted a new pesticide regulation that bans synthetic pesticides in all daycare facilities and schools. The use of cosmetic pesticides is banned on all public land. The rule also increases buffer zones around open water, outlaws application of mixtures of pesticides and fertilizers, requires sale and use permits for pesticide applicators, requires golf courses to present pesticide use reduction plans, and provides a list of less-toxic and organic pest control products.
The section of this rule banning 23 pesticide active ingredients includes lindane, malathion, MCPA, permethrin, benomyl, captan and 2,4-D. The list of banned substances comprises pesticides that WHO or EPA have identified as known or possible carcinogens or endocrine disruptors. According to the minister of Quebec, "Through this regulation, Quebec becomes the first place in North America to ban the most dangerous pesticides for health and the environment. The action undertaken today by the Quebec government will reduce people's exposure to these products which are particularly noxious to children's health." Montreal is considering even stronger rules concerning pesticide use on public and private property.
Under this rule, homeowners may not use 2,4 D to control weeds around the home. It will be interesting to see if this part of the rule can be enforced. Additionally, the Executive Director of the Industry Task Force II on 2,4-D Research, funded by the four North American manufacturers of the weed killer 2,4-D (Dow AgroSciences, BASF, Nufarm Inc., and Agro-Gor S.A.) said the industry would sue under Chapter 11 of NAFTA if Québec adopts the ban.
Quebec's Pesticide Management Code is available at http://www.menv.gouv.qc.ca/index-en.htm Order copies by calling (800) 463-2100. (PANUPS, 3-24-03)
If you have a good idea to reduce pesticide risks or improve IPM, here is some grant money for you. The EPA Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP) is calling for projects that address risk reduction goals. Their goals include pesticide pollution prevention, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), IPM in Schools, and children's health. Other projects will be considered as they complement these goals through public education, training, monitoring, demonstrations, and studies. The deadline is May 16.
The program is open to universities. However, if you have an idea, it is usually not difficult to find a collaborator. The program has nearly $500,000 to award. For more information, see this website http://www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/PESP/regional_grants/2003_call_for_proposals.htm
Non-profit and State organizations and Tribes in EPA Region 4 (AL, GA, FL, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN) are eligible for EPA Strategic Agricultural Initiative Grants (SAIG). The goal of this program is to reduce the risks from pesticides, especially to infants and children, used in the production of food and fiber with an emphasis on minor use crops (most fruits and vegetables). The in-field adoption by farmers of already identified potential low-risk integrated crop or pest management tools and strategies is a priority. Previous awards and information about the Region 4 SAI can be found at the following web site: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/local/region4/ag/index.htm
Projects should include risk reduction from highly toxic pesticides as their strongest component, but may include promotion of other best management practices, which ultimately lead to less reliance on pesticides. A holistic approach to pest management is encouraged which considers the entire ecosystem, including predator and prey ratio and soil health. A significant goal is to rapidly spread known technology and information about ways to reduce dependence on the more highly toxic pesticides. Projects that partner with farmers and include farmer to farmer transfer of information are strongly encouraged. If the project submitted builds on an ongoing or previous SAI project, please include a detailed explanation as to how the additional funds will expand the scope of the current or past project.
This program has about $400,000 to spend. The deadline is May 30.
According to Agrow World Crop Protection News,
2002 agrochemical sales were essentially flat worldwide at around $28
billion. Accounting for inflation and currency shifts, Agrow estimates
agrochemical sales actually fell by 1.5 percent in 2002. In 2001 the market also
shrank by 4.1 percent, thus the new figures bring the overall decline to 12
percent in the last five years.
North America is the largest market; sales shrank by nearly 2 percent. Latin American sales fell by nearly 4 percent, and the Asian/Pacific market dropped nearly 2 percent. Agrochemical sales in western Europe increased more than 7 percent. Fungicide sales increased 2.7 percent globally, but herbicide and insecticides sales were flat. Herbicide sales account for 46.6 percent of the global market.
This table summarizes the big players and their performance in 2002. These six companies accounted for about 70 percent of the 2002 market.
|Company||Sales 2002*||Sales 2001||Change|
|* Sales in billions of dollars|
A new kit to help reduce childhood poisonings is available for free. "Poison Prevention: Read the Label First! Community Action Kit" is available for communities to raise awareness of poison prevention and the importance of reading labels on household chemical cleaners and pesticides. According to the American College of Emergency Physicians, a child is accidentally poisoned every 30 seconds in the United States. More than half of these poisonings occur at home to children under age five. The American Association of Poison Control Centers reports that, in 2001 alone, an estimated 66,000 children less than six years of age were involved in common household pesticide-related poisonings or exposures. This handy kit, produced by the National Safety Council under an EPA grant, is designed for use by community organizers and other organizations engaged in public education. The kit includes fact sheets, sample press releases, activities for children and a variety of other materials.
The Poison Prevention: Read the Label First! Community Action Kit is available by contacting Donald Gooding at the National Safety Council at 202-974-2496 or by sending an e-mail to email@example.com Supplies are limited so get your order in now for these important new public safety materials.
On March 19, 2003, farm worker organizations and farm worker advocates criticized the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for not strengthening the Worker Protection Standard (WPS). The groups, including the Comité de Apoyo a los Trabajadores Agrícolas, the Farmworker Association of Florida, the Farmworker Justice Fund, the Farmworker Health and Safety Institute, Organización en California de Líderas Campesinas, PANNA, United Farm Workers of America, AFL-CIO, and others, charged that US EPA has failed to protect farmworkers and their families from both acute poisonings and long term health problems caused by exposure to hazardous pesticides.
Farm worker organizations are calling for a series of recommendations to improve the WPS, including: (1) improved training for all workers working with or near pesticides; (2) accessible and timely information about all pesticide applications available to farmworkers and communities where pesticides are applied; (3) enforcement of the WPS by state authorities, including protecting workers' rights to file complaints and complaint investigation. (PANUPS, 3-31-03)
The EPA has issued guidance for data required to meet the North American Free Trade Agreement standard for pesticide residues on food. The guidance document does not change U.S. data requirements for obtaining import tolerances in this country. This common approach to the establishment of import tolerances is expected to promote trade between North America and the rest of the world and maintain North American high standards for food safety. The common set of data requirements presented in the guidance document typically can result in a reduced data set, as well as a more efficient and cost effective review process for obtaining import tolerances in North America.
The NAFTA guidance document explains the product chemistry, residue chemistry, and toxicology data required to establish import tolerances or Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) in each of the NAFTA countries. Petitioners must still submit separate import tolerance/MRL petitions to each of the three NAFTA countries, and must adhere to each country's specific formatting and other requirements. The NAFTA countries encourage the concurrent submission of petitions so that joint review projects can be initiated. Joint review of petitions will help harmonize the setting of import tolerances in the NAFTA countries, promoting free trade within North America.
The guidance document is not final; and you can comment until June 16, 2003.
Review the NAFTA import tolerance guidance document at
The NAFTA import tolerance guidance Q's and A's document is available at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/naftaqa.htm (EPA Updates 4/16/03)
President George W. Bush commended pest management professionals for their efforts to protect the public health and property of Americans during the April observance of National Pest Management Month. "This public service campaign reinforces to all Americans, that it is important to realize that the environment we have created for ourselves has also given pests the opportunity to create serious public health issues," said Cindy Mannes, director of public affairs for the NPMA. "We know that mosquitoes can transmit West Nile Virus and encephalitis, cockroach allergens can trigger asthma in children, ticks can spread Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and rodents may spread hantavirus. Even insect stings force a half million people to the emergency room every year."
"As pests become very active in the spring, this is a great time for us to get our message out to the public and let them know there are steps we all can take to control the pests that spread these diseases," Mannes said. (PCT Online, 4-14-03)
The whole concept of G.W. Bush being aware of National Pest Management Month was probably an easy target for jokes, but I will let you make up your own mind. In truth, most people do not realize the importance of this industry. A lot of folks want a return to the "good old days" before pesticides. In those days, termites destroyed homes, pests ate much of our food, and mosquito-borne diseases caused many deaths.
The EPA plans to revoke the exemptions for watermelon mosaic virus-2 coat protein, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus coat protein and specific portions of the viral genetic material when used as plant-incorporated protectants in squash. This action does not mean these methods cannot be used; the exemptions are covered elsewhere in the law.
The national IPM meeting provided some interesting opportunities and information. The national IPM Road Map was unveiled. It included some specific objectives and strategies.
Goal 1: By 2006, reduce the average cost of pest management in major cropping systems compared to 2000 baseline while maintaining efficacy and sustainability. (NASS survey)
Objective: Develop and promote pest management approaches designed to improve farm profitability and agricultural sustainability.
Define and publish the elements (tactics) of IPM for crops in major cropping systems of the United States.
Develop and implement rapid, accurate monitoring and prediction systems for pest infestations and their resulting damage.
Refine, verify, and implement action thresholds for key pests and pest complexes of major cropping systems.
Improve the efficiency of suppression tactics and demonstrate least cost options and pest management alternatives.
Goal 2: Reduce by half the levels of hazardous pesticides detected in surface drinking water supplies by 2008. (USGS drinking water surveys)
Objective: Promote the adoption of pest management systems for agricultural and non-agricultural environments that minimize non-target impacts.
Design and promote effective pesticide application technologies that permit precise targeting of pesticides, particularly in high-risk situations and during adverse treatment conditions.
Develop and demonstrate crop production practices that reduce surface water and sediment movement off fields and non-agricultural sites.
Develop and promote practices to replace pesticides that pose high risk to surface drinking water supplies.
Demonstrate appropriate buffer zones or other practices to protect non-target areas from pesticide drift and other encroachments.
Goal 3: Reduce pesticide residue levels in the major foods consumed by infants and children by the year 2006. (AMS market basket survey)
Objective: Implement pest management approaches designed to eliminate unacceptable pesticide residues in crop commodities used for food, especially those consumed by infants and children.
Develop alternatives to pesticides that have resulted in unacceptable residue levels in food crop commodities.
Determine pesticide application methods, timing, and placement that result in improved efficacy with reduced pesticide residues in raw agricultural commodities.
Develop methods that will minimize pesticide residues that are found in processed foods.
Goal 4: Evaluate and promote national protocols for pest management in recreational, roadside, right-of-way, and native habitat areas by 2007. (are protocols developed?)
Objective: Develop and implement pest management programs that maintain safe, functional recreational, roadside, right-of-wa,y and native habitat environments.
Develop pest management approaches for turf grass, other landscape plantings, and aquatic sites that require less intensive pesticide use while maintaining functional and aesthetic standards.
Document the most effective ways to manage the encroachment of invasive species and facilitate the return of endemic species to native habitats.
Goal 5: Have pilot community-run pest management programs in place and operating by 2010.
Objective: Design and implement community-based pest management programs for residential, school, and public area environments that emphasize prevention programs and low-risk suppression technologies.
Expand and publicize the "IPM in Schools" program now in existence so it can be implemented nationwide.
Develop and disseminate a Residential Pest Management program to encourage adoption of IPM by homeowners.
Organize and publicize community stakeholder groups to administer the local community pest management efforts.
Remember these two points. For the next few years, there will be opportunities for groups that want to work under the IPM umbrella. Keep your eyes open for grant money and other resources. Secondly, a lot of people (including me) and government agencies are determined to see IPM succeed. Get on board or get run over.
The appearance of any trade name in this newsletter
is not intended to endorse that product
nor convey negative implications of unmentioned products.
The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter is a monthly journal for extension agents, extension specialists, and others interested in pest management news. It provides information on legislation, regulations, and other issues affecting pest management in Georgia.
Do not regard the information in this newsletter as pest management recommendations. Consult the Georgia Pest Management Handbook, other extension publications, or appropriate specialists for this information.
Your input in this newsletter is encouraged.
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Or write us:
Department of Entomology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602
Or visit us on the Web. You will find all the back issues there and other useful information. http://www.ces.uga.edu/Agriculture/entomology/pestnewsletter/newsarchive.html
Paul Guillebeau, Associate Professor & Extension Entomologist