July 1998/Volume 21, no. 5
HOW TO OBTAIN REGISTRATION FOR A MINOR USE PESTICIDE OR HOW TO DO THE IR-4
HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT
to the National Center for Policy Analysis, the U.S. should reconsider
current priorities for fighting cancer.
The National Cancer Institute will try to answer that age old question - Do pesticides increase the risk of cancer for farmers and their families?
What's going on with pesticides in schools?
According to Farm Bureau, farmer and ranchers provide food and habitat for 75% of U.S. wildlife.
Be careful about ticks this summer.
DON'T DO IT!
FOOD QUALITY PROTECTION ACT
Food Quality Protection Act is largely based on a report by the National Academy
of Sciences (NAS), Pesticides in the Diet of Infants and
Interviewers from USDA have been interviewing children and their caregivers across the country to see what they really eat.
If you are involved in animal production, you may be interested in this list from the Mississippi Cooperative Extension Service.
The EPA has issued a Reregistration Eligibility Documents for thiobencarb (a pre-emergence herbicide used primarily on rice), diphenylamine (a plant growth regulator used to control storage scald on apples), and butralin (an herbicide/growth regulator used on tobacco).
systems in some plants can be triggered by proteins that signal invasion by
a disease or attack by an insect.
More pesticide is applied in the U.S. to control corn rootworm than any other row-crop agricultural pest.
Georgia growers may now use clethodim (Envoy) to control common bermudagrass in centipede sod.
Georgia grower may use propiconazole (Tilt) to control leaf and glume blotch on wheat until Feekes growth stage 10.5.
Georgia grower may use lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) to control pine tip moth, pine sawfly, and June beetle on conifers.
The pre-harvest interval for azoxystrobin (Quadris) has been reduced from seven days to one day in Georgia.
Never say that nothing good ever came out of NAFTA; the U.S. and Canada have completed a joint review of a reduced-risk fungicide (cyprodinil) for use on a wide range of crops.
You can use canola oil (with not more than 2% of erucic acid) to control pests on any crop.
The USDA is working on two new options to control whiteflies and fire ants.
For greater production and efficiency, divide your farm into smaller management units.
PLOWING THE INTERNET
are some handy sites for keeping up the latest regulations.
Consumer Confidence in the Food Supply and some information about Food Irradiation
Information about a CD set with more than 200,000 MSDS
A set of Powerpoint slides on Drift
IPM in Schools
EPA's schedule for reassessing pesticide tolerances in or on raw and processed foods
The FQPA brochure developed for grocery stores -- See why it disappoints everyone
Minor crops or minor pesticide uses will undoubtedly suffer the greatest impacts from the Food Quality Protection Act; the USDA IR-4 program can help you replace critical minor-use pesticides.
Call the national (908-932-9575) or regional office (904-392-2399) if you would like to subscribe. The dates of the next IR-4 workshop are listed in the IR-4 newsletter. Information concerning planned and current projects is included, as well as petitions to EPA for new registrations.
If there are other topics that you would like to see covered in our 'How To' section, drop me a line or give me a call.
According to the National Center for Policy Analysis, the U.S. should reconsider current priorities for fighting cancer. The U.S. EPA estimates that we spend about $140 billion per year, or $1000 per household, to pay for environmental regulations. Many of the regulations protect us from exposure to man-made chemicals (such as pesticides) that cause cancer in laboratory rats or mice.
We are probably spending our money in the wrong places to prevent cancer. The primary causes of cancer are diet, lack of exercise, and smoking. About one-third of cancers are caused by poor diet (too much fat and not enough fruits and vegetables).
It is ironic that we focus on man-made pesticides. More than 99.9% of the pesticides that we consume are produced by plants. We consume 10,000 times more natural pesticides (by weight) than we do synthetic pesticides. Our plant foods contain thousands of different chemicals. Of the 63 that have been tested, 35 caused cancer in rodents. In coffee alone, 19 of 28 chemicals tested caused cancer in laboratory tests.
Do not despair. Humans and other animals evolved eating plants that contained carcinogens. At low levels, most laboratory carcinogens have no effect because our bodies can detoxify them. Your greatest risk of cancer is from not eating plenty of fruits and vegetables.
What kind of fruits and vegetables do you want? Nearly all consumers look for perfect produce at a low price. In many cases, these foods are brought to you by the responsible use of pesticides. If pesticide restrictions increase the price/quality of fruits and vegetables, we will increase the risk of cancer, particularly for low-income families. Should we spend additional tax money to further regulate pesticides that would create a greater cancer risk for poor people?
If you want a copy of the entire report, call 800-859-1154. (Daily Environment Report/Chemical Regulation Reporter, 4-10-98 via Chemically Speaking, 5-98) ... with some added comments from me.
In my opinion, your average citizen does not worry about pesticide residues on food. However, several vocal core groups create enough concern and confusion to influence the political process. I have personally heard the leader of one of these groups say that they did not care about the science surrounding the issues. To paraphrase his words, 'we garner our support and forward our goals by creating public concern about our issues. It is not important or economically feasible for us to develop the scientific data that support our arguments.' On the other side, my fellow scientists and I do not make any arguments that are not supported by scientific data. It certainly puts us a great disadvantage, but we prefer that public decisions are based on information instead of rhetoric.
Many people have confidence in former Surgeon General C. Everett Koop. In his words, 'Our food supply is not only the safest, but it is the most abundant in the world. Pesticides are one of the important tools that have made that abundance possible.'
The National Cancer Institute will try to answer that age old question - Do pesticides increase the risk of cancer for farmers and their families? For most cancers, farmers seem to have a reduced risk compared with the rest of the U.S. populace. However, there are certain types of cancer that occur more frequently in farmers. Some of the risks are easily explained. Farmers seem to have more skin cancer; they are in the sun a lot. Lip cancers seem to be elevated for farmers; many farmers smoke and/or chew tobacco.
Some types of cancer cannot be explained away, and some people think that pesticides may be causing some types of cancer. The situation is difficult to define for three reasons. 1) Cancers often take many years to develop; laboratory animals only live a few years at most. In order to produce cancers, lab animals are exposed to heavy doses of pesticides. If the rats or mice get cancer from these exposures, what does that mean for the farmer that is exposed to less pesticide for a longer period of time? 2) To do a proper epidemiology study in humans, you must identify large numbers of people with the target illness (e.g., pancreatic cancer). Because cancers can take so long to develop, you are asking people how they handled pesticides two, three, or four decades earlier. Most of us have a difficult time remembering what we had for breakfast. To make the task more difficult, the subjects may be dead. Then you are asking the wife, the friend, the neighbor how the subject handled pesticides many years ago. 3) No one knows how exposure to multiple carcinogens may affect the results. A farmer with cancer may have used pesticides for many years. However, they have also handled gasoline, diesel fuel, and other chemicals. Also, the person may have smoked, drank alcohol, and/or eaten a high-fat diet. Do these other factors matter? No one knows. A word to the wise is sufficient; minimize your exposure to pesticides, gasoline, diesel fuel, and other chemicals. It is not the first cigarette that kills you.
The National Cancer Institute hopes that a study of 90,000 farmers and wives (or husbands) will shed some light on the relationships between pesticides and cancers. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem. News, 26:23)
What's going on with pesticides in schools? In Maryland, elementary schools must inform parents at least one day before pesticide applications inside buildings. San Francisco has a similar law and banned the use of some pesticides. Texas requires an IPM coordinator for every school district. Guess who pays for all of these new rules, the taxpayers. Are they necessary, who knows?
In Georgia, we are going to try to do things right. No one wants our children exposed to unnecessary pesticides, but we do not want to increase health risks associated with pest infestations. In the next few weeks , we will deliver a pesticide use survey to every school district in cooperation with LEAF. We want the districts to tell us how they use pesticides in schools. Using this information, we will design a plan to help schools use pesticides only when they need them.
What should you do? Contact your local school district and encourage them to return the completed survey. We cannot make anyone return the survey, but we cannot make a reasonable plan without information.
According to Farm Bureau, farmers and ranchers provide food and habitat for 75% of U.S. wildlife. (American Farm Bureau, via Chemically Speaking 6-98)
Be careful about ticks this summer. We have had many reports of large tick populations, possibly exacerbated by our mild winter. Ticks can transmit Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and other diseases.
However, the risk is not as great as you may think. Very few cases of Lyme disease are reported in Georgia. Fatality or permanent injury associated with Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever or Lyme disease is rare if treated promptly.
Follow these guidelines to safeguard your family.
Margaret Stewart was just trying to make a dollar when she sold endosulfan mixed with water in a milk container. Unfortunately, a mix of endosulfan and water is milky white. Minnie Lou Rudd accidentally drank the endosulfan; she died.
Ms. Stewart pled guilty to a FIFRA violation and faces up to one year in prison. She will probably face additional civil and criminal charges as well. Regardless of the punishment that the law hands down, Ms. Stewart will face a lifetime of guilt and regret, and Ms. Rudd will not be brought back. (EPA Headquarters Press Release, 4-17-98)
Be careful with pesticides.
The Food Quality Protection Act is largely based on a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), Pesticides in the Diet of Infants and Children. Here is an interesting quote from the beginning of the report, "Their [pesticides] application has improved crop yields and has increased the quantity of fresh fruits and vegetables in the diet, thereby contributing to improvements in public health." Somehow the EPA and public action groups are using the NAS report to argue that we are poisoning ourselves and our children
Last week, I was asked to address the Tolerance Reassessment Advisory Committee, a group assembled to help EPA implement FQPA. Things have not changed since I left Washington, SNAFU. First of all, there are more than 50 people on the committee proper, far too many (in my opinion) to make any meaningful decisions. In addition to a representative from their national organization (ACPA), there were individuals from at least four pesticide companies. Can they not speak through their national representative? There were at least four or five committee members representing various public action groups. Are there viewpoints so different that they cannot be represented by one person?
Furthermore, much of the discussion concerned whether EPA's modeling and data were appropriate to make decisions. Although I respect and support each person's opinion, no one can judge the validity of data or models without extensive education. As I earned my doctorate, I took many classes concerning statistics and modeling, but there is a lot about statistics that I do not understand. It is the job of the scientific advisory panel to evaluate the statistical and other scientific aspects of the EPA process. However, some people on the committee saw their responsibility to judge EPA's statistical process without the proper background to do so. Unfortunately, many people think that anything they do not understand must be incorrect.
I am not justifying EPA actions; I am quite sure that the Agency is ready to make decisions even without the proper data (some things never change). To be honest, many times the time-table for decisions is controlled by politics or other forces that EPA cannot control.
In addition to the 50 committee members (seated around the inner circle of tables), there were 30-40 EPA people behind one end of the inner circle, ready to answer questions. On one side, there were seats for about 20-30 Congressional staffers. On the other end, I sat with about 100 members of the general public. It would have been perfect if some teams were playing a sport and someone had been selling beer and peanuts.
Only committee members, Congressional staffers, and EPA were allowed to talk during the body of the meeting, in order to keep the din to a minimum. I had to earn my right to a public comment by sitting through the entire meeting until the end. To reward my fortitude, I was allowed to speak for 120 seconds.
I whined about peanuts specifically and the entire process in general. For example, we use an organophosphate insecticide to control pests that attack peanuts in the soil. The pests do not cause excessive crop loss, but aflatoxin contamination is directly related to pod injury. Aflatoxin is bad news. It is highly toxic; it also causes cancer and birth defects. Do we need to exchange the negligible risk from organophosphates (applied to the pods, not the edible nuts) for the real risk of aflatoxin?
Additionally, peanut growers must control leafspot. Chlorothalonil is the keystone to the control program, but the EPA ranks it as a B2 carcinogen. Chlorothalonil could be canceled by FQPA (as EPA envisions it). This pesticide is critical, and it is only applied to the foliage. The peanuts are underground and contained within the pods. The risk to human health is nebulous; the threat to a $4 billion dollar industry and 150,000 jobs is not. If 150,000 parents lose their jobs, the health of children will certainly be affected.
In a final note, several committee members said that my comments were well received and could influence the committee actions. Additionally, there were some real heavyweights on the committee and in the room. Maybe my comments will do some good.
If pesticide restrictions increase the price/quality of fruits and vegetables, we will increase the risk of cancer, particularly for low-income families.
Interviewers from USDA have been interviewing children and their caregivers across the country to see what they really eat. The FQPA focuses on protecting children, but we have little information about what children really eat other than candy, potato chips, and soft drinks. The USDA interviewers will obtain two days' complete diet from 60 sites across the U.S. This information will help EPA implement FQPA. If you want more information about the study, contact Sharon Mickle at 301-734-5619 or firstname.lastname@example.org/ (Agric. Research, 4-98)
If you are involved in animal production, you may be interested in this list from the Mississippi Cooperative Extension Service. The pesticides on the left will subject to Phase-I EPA tolerance review. (Mississippi's Environment, 2-98)
|Subject to FQPA review:||In the clear, for now:|
|coumaphos (Co-Ral)||doramectin (Dectomex)|
|famphur (Warbex)||eprinomectin (Eprinex)|
|fenthion (Tiguvon)||ivemectin (Ivomec)|
|phosmet (Imidan, Prolex)||cyfluthrin (Cylence)|
|trichlorfon (Neguvon)||lamda-cyhalothrin (Sabre)|
If your industry depends on one or more of the pesticides in the FQPA group, I advise you strongly to collect information that documents how much the pesticide is used and how important it is. Pesticides that are important for IPM or resistance management are supposed to receive special consideration under FQPA.
The EPA has issued Reregistration Eligibility Documents for thiobencarb (a pre-emergence herbicide used primarily on rice), diphenylamine (a plant growth regulator used to control storage scald on apples), and butralin (an herbicide/growth regulator used on tobacco). All uses are eligible for reregistration. (EPA RED Facts, 9-97, 4-98, 5-98)
A RED does not mean that a pesticide will be reregistered, and it has almost nothing to do with FQPA. However, if a RED indicates that uses cannot be reregistered, it is often the end of the line.
Immune systems in some plants can be triggered by proteins that signal invasion by a disease or attack by an insect. Based on research by USDA, three new products (KeyPlex) aim to control pests by jump-starting the plant's natural defenses. One product reduced incidence of postbloom fruit drop by 80% in navel oranges; it also decreased whitefly populations on tomatoes.
More pesticide is applied in the U.S. to control corn rootworm than any other row-crop agricultural pest. Additionally, the pesticide has normally been applied to the soil to kill the larvae prophylactically. Soil applications increase the risk of groundwater contamination, and prophylactic treatment means that some areas are treated that do not have damaging pest populations. However, we are making progress.
Several years ago, it was discovered that cucurbitacins are irresistible to adult corn rootworms. This attraction led to a combination bait/pesticide product that is expected to tremendously reduce pesticide applied for corn rootworm control. The latest development is the substitution of a dye for the pesticide component of the bait/pesticide product. The dye is safe for higher animals; however, the sun activates the dye into a powerful oxidizer that is deadly for insects.
These products mark the continuing transition away from traditional pesticides as we gain understanding of the complex relationship between plants and pests. (Ag. Research, May 1998).
Georgia growers may now use clethodim (Envoy) to control common bermudagrass in centipede sod. Up to two applications of 34 fl. oz each may be applied per acre per year.
Georgia grower may use propiconazole (Tilt) to control leaf and glume blotch on wheat until Feekes growth stage 10.5. Up to 4.0 oz/acre may be applied per season.
Georgia grower may use lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) to control pine tip moth, pine sawfly, and June beetle on conifers. Up to 5.12 oz/acre may be applied six times per year.
The pre-harvest interval for azoxystrobin (Quadris) has been reduced from seven days to one day in Georgia. A similar reduced PHI is in effect in Florida.
Never say that nothing good ever came out of NAFTA; the U.S. and Canada have completed a joint review of a reduced-risk fungicide (cyprodinil) for use on a wide range of crops. Crops approved by EPA include almond, grape, apple, pear, peach, cherry, nectarine, plum, and prune. I have no information regarding efficacy. For more information, hit the Web. http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/international/ (EPA Headquarters Press Release, 4-17-98)
You can use canola oil (with not more than 2% of erucic acid) to control pests on any crop.The EPA has issued a tolerance exemption. (FR, 4-15-98)
The USDA is working on two new options to control whiteflies and fire ants. Scientists have discovered that sugar esters from a wild tobacco break down the coating of soft-bodied insects like whiteflies and aphids. The esters are relatively safe for hard-bodied insects like lady beetles, and they should be very safe for higher animals. The next step is to develop a synthetic version that can be mass-produced economically. Contact Alvin Simmons for more information, 843-556-0840 or email@example.com
A USDA lab in Florida has discovered a repellent for fire ants. Combined with corn starch or similar materials, the repellent can prevent the invasion of fire ants and limit foraging. This strategy could provide an alternative where pesticide use is undesirable. If you want to know more, contact Robert Vander Meer at 352-374-5918 or mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org (Agric. Research, 7-98)
For greater production and efficiency, divide your farm into smaller management units. That 500 acre field that you spray and fertilize uniformly may actually be several different fields, based on soil type, proximity to unmanaged areas, or other factors. Parts of the field may need substantially more fertilizer or pesticide than other areas. This type of subdivision is the basis of precision agriculture
Define the parameters for smaller units based on your experience and common sense. If the lower half of the field is a heavier soil, it will probably be managed differently. The part of the field next to the dirt road may be a greater risk of spider mite infestations. Differing weed problems may define separate management units.
More units means increased management time (i.e., money). You will need to keep records to compare increased productivity with increased monetary and time inputs required for your new subunits. As time goes by, you will recognize that some of your subdivisions have not improved your bottom line. However, as you refine your program, you are likely to increase your overall profits and reduce your farm's impact on the environment. (Gempler's IPM Solutions, April 1998)
Here are some handy sites for keeping up the latest regulations.
Federal Pesticide Record-Keeping Requirements: http://www.ams.usda.gov/science/sdpr.htm
Endangered Species Program: http://www.epa.gov/opppsps1/endanger/
Consumer Confidence in the Food Supply and some information about Food Irradiation: http://www.fcs.uga.edu/outreach/coopex/
Information about a CD set with more than 200,000 MSDS: http://www.env-sol.com/solutions/MSDS.HTML for details.
A set of Powerpoint slides on Drift: http://www.age.uiuc.edu/faculty/rew/index.html
IPM in Schools: http://www.ifas.ufl.edu/~schoolipm/
EPA's schedule for reassessing pesticide tolerances in or on raw and processed foods: http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-PEST/1997/August/Day-04/p20560.htm
The FQPA Brochure developed for grocery stores-- see why it disappoints everyone: http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-PEST/1998/January/Day-14/p925.htm
Unless the request is withdrawn, the EPA will delete the following uses from pesticide registrations. The products may continue to be sold for one year, and end-users may use products according to the label indefinitely.
Pesticide: deleted uses
Supracide, Surpacide 25WP, Supracide 2E: nursery stock, pecans, sorghum, sunflower, tobacco
Prentox Pyronil Crop Spray: dogs and cats (in case you were raising a crop of dogs or cats)
Pretox Pyronyl Oil: dogs
SMCP Malathion EM-2: household insects, mosquitoes in standing water, indoor use, animal use, poultry, dogs/cats, animal quarters, mosquitoes/flying insects
Superior EC 5 malathion Concentrate: animal sleeping quarters, cattle dogs, poultry houses, food handling establishments, homes, dairy and food processing plants.
Technical Bidrin Insecticide: soybeans
CSA Aerosol Insecticide Formula Seven: pet care
SA-50 Brand Home and Garden Oftanol Insecticide: lakes, streams, ornamental areas, commercial/recreational turf grass areas, ornamental beds/nurseries, noncrop areas, container stock, soil mix for ornamentals
Malathion WP: beef cattle, poultry, poultry houses, household insects, food handling establishments
Drexel Endosulfan 3 EC: alfalfa for fodder, artichoke, barley, oat, rye, wheat, pea seed crop, safflower, sugar beet, sunflower
Drexel Acephate Technical: pasture/rangeland
Acephate 75 SP: pasture/rangeland
Orthene 75 S: pasture/rangeland
Orthene Technical: pasture/rangeland
Orthene 75 WSP: pasture/rangeland
Vinclozolin (Ronilan, Ornalin) will be canceled for use on strawberry, kiwi, and stone fruit at the request of the registrant. The cancellation will become effective 30 days after an upcoming Federal Register notice. Existing stocks for these uses will be sold through June 1999. (PESP News, 7-1-98)
NOTE: the mention of any product in this newsletter should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that product nor should the omission of any product be considered a negative statement.
The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter is a monthly journal for Extension agents/specialists, and others interested in pest management news. It provides information on legislation, regulations, and other pest management issues.
Do not regard the information in this newsletter as pest management recommendations. Consult the Georgia Pest Control Handbook, other Extension publications, or appropriate specialists for this information.
Your input in this newsletter is encouraged.
If you wish to be added to the mailing list, just call us at 706-542-1765.
Department of Entomology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602
Back issues: http://www.ces.uga.edu/ces/wnews.html
Paul Guillebeau, Assistant Professor & Extension Entomologist