The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
Your source for pest management and pesticide news
July 2003/Volume 26, No. 7
Do you ever wonder if your pesticide shed is too hot or too cold?
FOOD QUALITY PROTECTION ACT AND REREGISTRATION
EPA , registrants, and USDA are discussing carbaryl
The EPA is also discussing DCNA, malathion, spinosad, and TDZ
Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. has asked EPA to cancel the registrations for all of its remaining diazinon products
HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT
especially careful with pesticides during unusual weather
The Colorado State Veterinarian called on the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Fort Dodge Animal Health to investigate possible side affects of the popular West Nile Virus vaccine
If you need free training on West Nile Virus and/or mosquito control, here is a resource
Here is another site with a great deal of information about West Nile Virus
Shareholders are to question some practices of pesticide companies
The EPA and the Ad Council have released a national educational campaign to encourage parents to take steps in their homes to reduce environmental triggers that can lead to childhood asthma attacks.
may be a new tool for organic growers
Look for a new gel bait to use against a variety of ants
Scientists looking for methyl bromide replacements are experimenting with radio waves as a way to kill insects in nuts
The EPA has given Syngenta Professional Products permission to test a new termite bait under an Experimental Use Permit
2002 annual report from EPA's Pesticide Program is
For the first time, EPA has approved biopesticides for emergency exemptions
As you have probably heard by now, Christie Whitman is stepping down from her post as the Administrator of EPA
DON'T DO IT
A shoplifter released bees in a department store restroom and escaped with about $60 worth of merchandise
Do you ever wonder if your pesticide shed is too hot or too cold? The University of Missouri Extension Service has a publication that can help. You can find specific storage information for a range of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. Thanks to Fred Fishel for a definitive publication. http://muextension.missouri.edu/xplor/agguides/pests/ipm1012.htm
The EPA, registrants, and USDA are discussing carbaryl. There are a number of remaining issues. Currently, the risk assessment indicates that both citrus and apples face reduced application rates or number of applications, and/or the interval between applications may be increased. Citrus would still cause concern even if EPA were to accept Bayer's proposal to reduce app rate to 3 lb ai/A 30 days before harvest.
The Agency says that the acute dietary concerns will be mitigated if carbaryl registrations are withdrawn for strawberries. This may allow for citrus and apples to keep the higher rates/number of applications. Strawberry growers in California are not using carbaryl because the registrant increased the pre-harvest interval (PHI) from three days to seven. Growers would like to see that PHI reduced.
There are also some questions to be resolved with re-entry intervals (REI). The current apple REI for thinning the apples is 8 days; the REI for apple harvest is 12 hours. The REI for grapes is 14 days; the REI may be reduced to 10 days. The REI for sweet corn is 30 days; this use may be removed from the label unless sweet corn growers have a pressing need for carbaryl. (OPMP Newest News, 6-19-03)
Remember, the risk assessment for carbaryl has just begun. You will have ample opportunity to comment unless the EPA and registrants negotiate a settlement. In that case, you will have little or no opportunity for input. We will keep you posted. If you care about carbaryl, you should begin to collect information to make your case.
The EPA is also discussing DCNA, malathion, spinosad, and TDZ. The first meetings concerning DCNA are expected later in the summer. This product is a foliar fungicide for use on apricots, beans, celery, cherries, cucumbers, endive, fennel, garlic, grapes, lettuce, nectarines, onions, peaches, plums, potatoes, prunes, rhubarb, shallots, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, and certain forest and ornamental uses. Reregistration of malathion will be delayed until January of next year (or later) because of ongoing toxicological discussions. Spinosad registration on stored grain is unlikely before 2005; the delay is expected to cause difficulties with getting this use through the CODEX MRL process. CODEX is the WHO/FAO international standard for the amount of pesticide residues that can remain on foods.
TDZ is another name for thidiazuron, the active ingredient in several cotton defoliants. For you noncotton growers, cotton is much easier to pick if leaves are off of the plant. Approximately 40 percent of U.S. cotton acreage is treated annually with some form of TDZ. Average use rate for TDZ is a little less than 0.06 lb ai/A, and total use is around 300,000 lbs per year. The major advantages from using TDZ include excellent defoliation at very low use rates and good control of cotton regrowth. Other defoliant products do not control regrowth. (OPMP Newest News, 6-19-03)
Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. has asked EPA to cancel the registrations for all of its remaining diazinon products (agricultural and outdoor non-agricultural). EPA intends to grant the request. However, Syngenta is not the only registrant for diazinon; other registrations remain for agricultural uses.
Be especially careful with pesticides during unusual weather conditions. Across much of the Southeast, rain has been very heavy this year. Flooding has been common. About ten days ago, wet weather, cattle curiosity, and bad luck caused a farmer in Alabama to lose nearly 60 cows. The state veterinarian's office thinks that a pesticide is the most likely cause of death. There has been no reason to suspect pesticide misuse.
The farmer had a peanut field adjacent to a cow pasture. He used pesticides on his peanuts like most peanut growers. Somehow, the gate between the fields was opened, and the cows moved into the peanut field. The cows did not eat the peanuts. Nearly 60 cows died, and the bodies contained evidence of a pesticide that the farmer had used about 10 days earlier.
Authorities think that heavy rains that pooled in the field contained enough pesticide to kill the cows. No nursing calves were killed; nursing calves rarely drink water. (http://www.al.com/news/mobileregister/index.ssf?/xml/story.ssf/html_standard.xsl?/base/news/105540965088640.xml)
Cows will do some unusual things, particularly if they are looking for salt. We have heard other reports of cows breaking into pesticide sheds or even dying from licking boards contaminated with pesticide concentrates.
The Colorado State Veterinarian called on the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Fort Dodge Animal Health to investigate possible side affects of the popular West Nile Virus vaccine. According to the state veterinarian, there are enough anecdotal reports of vaccinated mares giving birth to stillborn or deformed foals to warrant an investigation. However, there is not scientific justification to warrant a cautionary statement on the vaccine label.
West Nile Virus kills about one-third of horses that become infected. No vaccinated horse has died; vaccinations combined with mosquito control are considered to be the best ways to protect horses from the virus. Horse owners with pregnant mares are advised to discuss vaccine with their veterinarian.
If you need free training on West Nile Virus and/or mosquito control, here is a resource. You will need RealPlayer V9 and Shockwave to view them; I think you can download both from the Internet. http://sdces.sdstate.edu/westnile/wnv2003.htm You may also want to visit the main South Dakota State University Extension page http://sdces.sdstate.edu/ for some information about personal mosquito repellents and other WNV related materials. They have published three children's activity books (pre-school, 6-9, & 10-12) addressing WNV (my family is going on vacation; these will be perfect), two posters (children and adult versions), and wallet cards listing DEET precautions and breeding site reduction with financial assistance from the SD Dept. of Health. These resources, particularly the Web training, may be a great resource in times of fewer budget dollars. Thanks to SDSU for sharing.
Here is another site with a great deal of information about West Nile Virus. http://www.westnilevirusfacts.org/ This site is sponsored by Responsible Industry for a Sound Environment. This group is a national not-for-profit trade association representing producers and suppliers of specialty pesticides and fertilizers. Their information at this site promotes IPM and the safe use of pesticides.
Shareholders are to question some practices of pesticide companies. According to PANUPS, shareholders at Monsanto are requesting information about pesticide practices and the potential for expensive lawsuits. Investment companies that specialize in "socially responsible" investments are leading this movement. A resolution submitted by one investment company called on Monsanto to disclose its practices of exporting potential carcinogens and pesticides not registered in the United States. The company also requested disclosure of training and educational information Monsanto provides to workers who use these pesticides. Reportedly, more than 13 percent of the voting shareholders supported the resolution. This vote does not necessarily mean these investors are concerned about the environment or human health; they may also be concerned about the liability associated with marketing pesticides. (PANUPS, 6-13-03)
The EPA and the Ad Council have released a national educational campaign to encourage parents to take steps in their homes to reduce environmental triggers that can lead to childhood asthma attacks. This national campaign includes new Public Service Announcements (PSAs) for TV, radio, newspaper and transit in English and in Spanish. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that up to 20 million people in the United States have asthma, including 6.3 million children. Asthma is a leading cause of school absences and there are nearly 2 million emergency room visits and nearly half a million hospitalizations due to asthma every year. You can find more details at http://www.noattacks.org/ .
What does this have to do with pesticides? Debris and wastes from household pests are an important trigger for asthma. Roaches and rodents leave droppings. Rodent hairs and pieces of roach skin get into the air as well. Unfortunately, the indiscriminate use of pesticides also creates health risks. The answer is integrated pest management (IPM). If you want more information about using IPM in your home to control roaches and other pests, visit us on the web at http://www.ent.uga.edu/ipm/homeowner_ipm.htm to see "Keeping Pests Out of the Home with Fewer Pesticides" or contact your local Cooperative Extension Service office.
Spinosad may be a new tool for organic growers. Spinosad is a bacteria-based insecticide derived from Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Spinosad had been acceptable for organic production before the new organic rules became effective; one of the inert ingredients in the spinosad product did not meet the new organic standard. The new product, Entrust, apparently has different inerts; the product has been approved for use in the production of organic produce.
Although spinosad has been approved for organic production, it will be interesting to see if organic activists accept it as an organic pesticide. We hope they do. Organic growers need some effective products.
Look for a new gel bait to use against a variety of ants. Approval from EPA is expected soon. This new product was developed by USDA scientists and was patented in a joint agreement between USDA and Waterbury Companies, Inc. Under a cooperative agreement, Waterbury collaborated with USDA entomologists to refine and adapt the formulation to Waterbury's bait gel specifications.
Area wide trials for fire ant control are being conducted at four sites. This bait is reported to be the first of its kind that is eaten by fire ants. The final product is a weather-resistant, yellow gel that the ants will eat year-round and that can be squeezed onto both flat and vertical surfaces. It contains 5 percent boric acid, which, in tests, killed fire ant colonies in two months or less, depending on their size and the season. (PCT Online, 6-12-03)
We will keep you posted as we hear about EPA registration and reports of the new product's effectiveness.
Scientists looking for methyl bromide replacements are experimenting with radio waves as a way to kill insects in nuts. Similar methods are used to kill insects in dry cereal, clothing, and plywood. The radio waves heat up the insects in a manner similar to a microwave oven. In early tests, small batches of nuts are placed in a salty liquid solution and exposed to the radio waves. The radio waves are intended to kill the insects without overheating the nuts. Although the method is more expensive than using chemicals, it may become a viable alternative if chemical options become costly or less available. Commercial versions may be available as early as 2004. (ARS News Service, 2-11-03)
The EPA has given Syngenta Professional Products permission to test a new termite bait under an Experimental Use Permit. The new product is called Zyrox™, and it contains the active ingredient lufenuron. This product is not registered for control of termites in the United States. This same active ingredient is used in a number of products to control fleas. (PCT Online, 6-9-03)
The 2002 annual report from EPA's Pesticide Program is available at http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/annual/. The report highlights the achievements of the federal and regional programs. The Agency is responsible for more than 18,000 pesticide products registered for use in the U.S. The EPA has reviewed more than 6,400 pesticide tolerances and revoked nearly 2,000 tolerances. The Agency registered 720 new uses for registered active ingredients and registered 26 new active ingredients, primarily biopesticides and reduced-risk pesticides. More than 70 percent of the tolerances in the first-priority group have been evaluated.
(EPA Pesticide Program Update, 6-13-03)
For the first time, EPA has approved biopesticides for emergency exemptions. Beekeepers in Indiana, Maine, Minnesota, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Utah were given permission to use biological pesticide formulations containing thymol, menthol, and eucalyptus to control varroa mites. Unchecked, these parasites can destroy an entire bee colony. Varroa mites cause problems for both the beekeepers and growers who need pollinators. The Agency also approved an emergency exemption for the use of unregistered lepidopteran pheromone products in Oregon and Washington. The pheromones will be used to control western poplar clearwing moth, a pest of pulp trees and saw timber. (EPA Pesticide Program Update, 6-13-03)
As you have probably heard by now, Christie Whitman is stepping down from her post as the Administrator of EPA.We have not said much about it because a new Administrator will not change things much. Public action groups have successfully sued EPA regarding their FQPA activities. These watchdogs are keeping a close eye on EPA, and they will not hesitate to head back into the courtroom. We expect the Agency to stay the course regarding FQPA and pesticide reregistration. On other matters, the word in the media is that the White House is providing guidance for EPA regarding environmental regulations.
A shoplifter released bees in a department store restroom and escaped with about $60 worth of merchandise. Security personnel had spotted the shoplifter and followed him to the restroom. When the security worker opened the door, about 100 bees flew out. With that diversion, the shoplifter made good his escape. Store employees pulled cans of bug spray off store shelves to kill the bees. No one was stung. (Kansas City Star, 6-13-03 via PCT Online, 6-13-03) No word on how the thief smuggled the bees into the store.
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The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter is a monthly journal for extension agents, extension specialists, and others interested in pest management news. It provides information on legislation, regulations, and other issues affecting pest management in Georgia.
Do not regard the information in this newsletter as pest management recommendations. Consult the Georgia Pest Management Handbook, other extension publications, or appropriate specialists for this information.
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Department of Entomology
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Paul Guillebeau, Associate Professor & Extension Entomologist