The University of Georgia
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
Cooperative Extension Service
Georgia Department of Agriculture advises rinsing spray equipment
in the field.
Georgia growers recycled 200,000 pounds of pesticide containers in 1997.
Clean Day is coming to Mitchell, Grady, and Thomas counties.
CRAM (Citizens for Responsible Alternatives to Malathion) and SCRAM (Sarasota/Manatee Citizens Rallying Against Malathion) are trying to prevent further aerial sprays of malathion to control medflies (Mediterranean fruit flies) in Florida.
The Environmental Working Group charges that the Clinton administration has not reduced pesticide use despite a 1993 pledge.
I have heard that the group who publishes Consumer Reports magazine wants to produce an assessment of pesticides in the diets of children.
The EPA has released a final list of contaminants (including pesticides) that will set priorities for the Clean Water Drinking Act.
Keep that out of your mouth! Maryland reports that adults, not children, are more likely to be poisoned by household cleaners and medicines.
According to American Farmland Trust, approximately 1 million acres of farmland is converted to other uses each year.
Under the developing 'Prior Informed Consent' procedure, all countries would be alerted if the United States (or another country) bans or severely restricts a pesticide.
Be careful how you use DEET!
A product containing permethrin is the best way to keep ticks off of you.
An Arizona study indicates that children that are heavily exposed to pesticides suffer serious health effects, including impaired cognition, memory, and motor ability.
growers have received an emergency exemption to use tebafenozide to
control tufted apple moth and codling moth on apple.
Under crisis exemptions, Georgia growers may use Orbit (propiconazole) on blueberries to control mummy berry and Quadris (azoxystrobin) to control gummy stem blight on watermelons and cantaloupes.
Georgia tobacco farmers may use Acrobat (dimethomorph + mancozeb) to control blue mold until July 1, 1998.
The EPA has established permanent tolerances for bromozynil (and its metabolite) on transgenic cotton.
announced that AgrEvo corn CBH-351 is no longer considered to be a regulated
The EPA approved a new Bacillus thuringiensis corn (StarLink) by AgrEvo.
In interesting about-face, Monsanto will support European labeling of genetically engineered foods.
to get something changed? Let the federal government know about it in a
Notice to EPA: A colleague of mine recently needed to know what new pesticides had been registered.
Propazine tolerances are being cancelled on sorghum.
FOOD QUALITY PROTECTION ACT
Chairman and Ranking Member
of the House Commerce Committee are not happy with EPA implementation of
My comments. Many, or most, OPs/Carbamates/B2s should not be removed forcibly from the market EVER.
The EPA will give priority to new pesticides that are considered to be reduced-risk alternatives to organophosphates.
What if we cannot control lesser cornstalk borer (LCB) damage on peanut without an OP?
Will organophosphates and carbamates be considered in the same risk cup?
The assistant administrator of OPPTS, Lynn Goldman, stated that EPA is nowhere near canceling all OP pesticides.
Marcia Mulkey, Director of the Office of Pesticide Programs (she answers to Lynn Goldman), stated that OPP has enough information to make 'sound, science based' decisions regarding organophosphates.
DON'T DO IT!
Do not be tempted to use a pesticide illegally even if you think it will do a good job.
Farmers are allowed exceptions when they transport agricultural products to/from their farm or between fields.
The Georgia Department of Agriculture advises rinsing spray equipment in the field. Rinsing your equipment in the field will help you avoid unwanted sod and water contamination. Perform all inside and outside rinsing in the field following application. Apply the rinsewater to field borders, row ends, or the field itself (if you will not exceed label rate). There are systems available from your local spray equipment dealer to make field rinsing easier. (The Final Rinse, March/April 1998)
Georgia growers recycled 200,000 pounds of pesticide containers in 1997 (equal to more than 260,000 2.5 gal jugs)! For this environmental protection, thank the Georgia Department of Agriculture, the Cooperative Extension Service, UAP/GA Ag. Chem, Ag. pilots, and Georgia farmers. Way to go! (The Final Rinse, March/April 1998)
If you need to have some jugs recycled, talk to your county agent and call UAP/Ga. Ag. Chem. at 912-776-0011 to schedule a chipping date.
Clean Day is coming to Mitchell, Grady, and Thomas counties. The Georgia Clean Day program is taking off. We received more than $240,000 from the state legislature to help agriculture dispose of waste pesticides. If you live in these three counties, contact the Extension office right away if you have waste pesticides. If you do not five in these counties, sit fight and store those pesticides securely. If the funding continues, we will help everyone dispose of agricultural pesticides.
If you want to dispose of household pesticides, contact your local extension office. In many cases, you can throw them away in your local landfill.
CRAM (Citizens for Responsible Alternatives to Malathion) and SCRAM (Sarasota/Manatee Citizens Rallying Against Malathion) are trying to prevent further aerial sprays of malathion to control medflies (Mediterranean fruit flies) in Florida. They also want the state to immediately replace ground applications of malathion with releases of sterile male fruitflies.
However, a scientific advisory panel has advised continued aerial application of malathion around Bradenton if medflies, continue to be caught in traps. The citizen groups will seek an injunction if aerial application continues. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem News, 5-21-98)
The situation in Florida is a further indication of the rising conflict between agriculture and the general public. Medflies are a very serious pest of many fruits and vegetables. Fortunately, they are not established in Florida. Periodic introductions from other area have been eradicated through monitoring, releases of sterile nude flies, and applications of malathion.
If the medfly becomes endemic throughout Florida, it will require a substantial increase in the amounts of pesticides to produce fruits and vegetables in Florida. Neither growers nor the general public want to apply more pesticides.
On the other hand, the public has a legitimate concern about aerial application of malathion over large areas. The environmental and public health associated with the malathion applications are believed to be small, but there are risks. I would not be comfortable with a plane flying over my property releasing any amount of any pesticide without my permission.
Agriculture will have to continue to move toward more acceptable pest control methods. It is not enough to try to convince the public that everything is 'safe.' They clearly do not believe it. On the other hand, the public must realize that we need money and resources to discover and implement safer pest control technologies. Instead of simply organizing and voting against pesticides, action groups should pressure the federal and state governments to provide the necessary resources to pest research and extension agencies.
The Environmental Working Group charges that the Clinton administration has not reduced pesticide use despite a 1993 pledge. According to EWG, farmers applied 70 million more pounds of pesticide in 1995 compared with 1993 application.
They are also attacking Gore's directive concerning FQPA, in which Gore instructed EPA and USDA to work together to ensure an orderly transition away from the use of organophosphate insecticides. "The pesticide lobby guardedly thanked Mr. Gore's staff at the special White House event where the document was released," says EWG. EWG adds that opponents of pesticide regulation and sustainable agriculture in the U.S. have become bolder, while EPA staffers are uncertain if the White House will support strong actions to eliminate OP uses. (Pestic. and Tox. Chem. News. 5-21-98)
On the surface, the EWG report is dramatic and frightening. There is more to this picture, however, than meets the eye. Pesticide use is a poor measure of progress toward environmental and public safety. Reducing the pounds of pesticide applied may do nothing to reduce pesticide risk. We can reduce the amount of pesticide applied by simply making the pesticide more concentrated, but the risk would increase.
Secondly, EWG points out that opponents of sustainable agriculture have become bolder. Much of the recent increase in pesticide usage is the result of greater use of no-till and reduced tillage production systems. Reducing tillage can decrease soil erosion 90 percent, which reduces the amounts of soil (and pesticides) that reach our waterways. Soil structure, organic matter, and fertility are also improved with reduced tillage. Less gasoline is used. However, growers had to replace tillage with herbicides to control weeds. Reduced tillage promotes sustainable agriculture and improves environmental quality (soil erosion is very serious problem). Please do not call us the enemies of sustainable agriculture because we want to preserve the tools we need for sustainable agriculture.
Both sides of the FQPA/organophosphate debate are trying to recover from serious tactical errors. Both the Senate and the House approved FQPA unanimously, and the White House signed before the ink was even dry. These quick actions are a sure sign that many Congressmen and the White House did not take the time to read and understand the implications of FQPA. As a result, the House, the Senate, and the White House are clarifying their positions through directive letters to EPA.
A substantial component of EPA and some public action groups want all organophosphate/carbamate/B2 pesticides eliminated immediately, regardless of the impact that it would have on U.S. food production. These factions saw FQPA as their big chance, but they actions were too extreme. With the support of these action groups, EPA was simply going to cancel nearly all of the organophosphate/carbamate/B2 uses. However, these pesticides account for more than 70% of the pesticides used annually, and many crops could not be produced without them. The agricultural constituency mounted a tremendous response that could not be overlooked. Consequently, the EPA has also done a great deal of clarification.
Finally, EWG advocates some 'tough calls' regarding organophosphates. What are these tough calls. Put farmers out of business? That's tough. Push production of minor crops out of the U.S.? That's tough; we can just import all of that stuff. Increase the price of fruits and vegetables so that our low-income citizens can't afford a healthy diet? That's tough; let them eat cake.
Let's continue to advocate and progress toward a safer food supply, but let us be realistic. It will take some serious money and time before minor crops can be produced in the United States without organophosphates, carbamates and B2s. No one calls for a speed limit of 45 mph even though it could save thousands of lives; instead we continue to work for safer cars, safer highways, and safer drivers. Apply the same approach to agriculture.
I have heard that the group who publishes Consumer Reports magazine wants to produce an assessment of pesticides in the diets of children. Good for them. Many of us consult CR when we want to buy a car or a new washing machine because we trust their unbiased reporting. I was also told that CR has asked the Environmental Working Group to do the assessment. If that report is true, not good for them. Public action groups often serve a useful function; they push society toward safer products. However, they are rarely unbiased, and EWG is no exception. The previous story makes it clear that EWG is pushing a specific agenda. If they produce a pesticide assessment for Consumer Reports, take it with a grain of salt.
The EPA has released a final list of contaminants (including pesticides) that will set priorities for the Clean Water Drinking Act. The list will supply EPA with candidates for regulation over the next few years. There are chemical contaminants and microbes on the list. Pesticides on the list: Telone, acetochlor, alachlor ESA (a degradate), DCPA di-acid degradate, DDE (from DDT), diazinon, dieldrin, disulfoton, diuron, EPTC, fonofos, linuron, methyl bromide, metolachlor, metribuzin, molinate, perchlorate, prometon, terbacil, and terbufos.
These pesticides were chosen because they are known or anticipated to occur in public drinking water. (Arrow Newsletter, 3-98)
You can see the entire list on the Web. http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw
Keep that out of your mouth! Maryland reports that adults, not children, are more likely to be poisoned by household cleaners and medicines. According the Maryland Poison Control Center, only one of 27 deaths from poisons are children. Most adult poisonings occur from accidental overdoses, suicide, or adverse drug reactions. Half of the deaths were unintentional. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem News, 3-19-98)
According to American Farmland Trust, approximately 1 million acres of farmland is converted to other uses each year. The competition for farmland is expected to increase as technology and transportation allow us to five and work away from the city. Why should we preserve farmland? 1) ensure U.S. food security, 2) invest in community infrastructure, 3) protect natural resources, 4) sustain our quality of fife. (GDA Market Bulletin, 3-11-98)
Under the developing 'Prior Informed Consent' procedure, all countries would be alerted if the United States (or another country) bans or severely restricts a pesticide (or other chemical). Other countries will be informed about the action and under what circumstances the pesticide could be used safely. The PIC designation will not automatically restrict or ban import/export of a pesticide, but importing countries would be fully aware of the associated hazards. Currently there are 22 pesticides on the PIC list.
|DDT||Monocrotophos (some formulations)|
|Dieldrin||Methamidophos (some formulations)|
|Dinoseb||Phosphamidon (some formulations)|
|EDB||Methyl parathion (some formulations)|
|Fluoroacetamide||Ethyl parathion (some formulations|
If you want more details, get online. http://irptc.unep.ch/pic/volpic/h3.html
Be careful how you use DEET! Summer is here along with mosquitoes, ticks, biting flies, etc. You may be tempted to bathe yourself and your children in DEET (in many insect repellents) before you go out. DEET is absorbed through the skin. At least 3 children have died as a result. Do not use DEET on children under three. Do not apply DEET to children's hands if they still put their hands in their mouth. Avoid skin contact with DEET if possible; put it on your clothes. When you go back inside to stay, wash DEET off of your skin with soap and water. Wash DEET treated clothes.
A product containing permethrin is the best way to keep ticks off of you. Tape or rubber-band your pants legs around your legs and apply the pesticide to your shoes and pants. Ticks are very susceptible to permethrin. Don't use these products on small children. Use them carefully.
Do you worry about Lyme disease? There were 8 cases reported in Georgia from Jan. -Nov., 1997. Only one case reported in Georgia for the same period in 1996. Ever think about chlamydia, gonorrhea or syphilis? There were more than 33,300 cases reported in Georgia for the same period of 1997.
An Arizona study indicates that children who are heavily exposed to pesticides suffer serious health effects, including impaired cognition, memory, and motor ability. In the area where the children live, farmers typically apply 90 pesticide applications per year during two crop cycles. Additionally, area families tend to use household insecticides daily. Health impacts from this type of pesticide exposure are not surprising. However, the research leader states "I don't think the kids' exposures are either more or less than might occur in other agricultural areas." (Science News, 6-6-98)
You can bet your boots that this information will be used against pesticides in the United States, without pointing out the 90 applications per year plus daily use of indoor pesticides.
Curious about biocontrol? Visit http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/biocontrol/biocontrol.html
Georgia growers have received an emergency exemption to use tebafenozide to control tufted apple moth and codling moth on apple. The exemption expires October 1, 1998.
Under crisis exemptions, Georgia growers may use Orbit (propiconazole) on blueberries to control mummy berry and Quadris (azoxystrobin) to control gummy stem blight on watermelons and cantaloupes. Contact the Georgia Department of Agriculture (404-656-4958) if you need more information.
Georgia tobacco farmers may use Acrobat (dimethomorph + mancozeb) to control blue mold until July 1, 1998. Applications for research or extension may be made until December 31, 1998.
The EPA has established permanent tolerances for bromozynil (and its metabolite) on transgenic cotton. BXN cotton was specifically engineered to tolerate applications of bromoxynil. However, EPA stated in 1997 that the Agency was concerned about potential health effects of bromoxynil. The registrant was able to assuage EPA fears with additional residue data and risk assessments. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem. News, 5-14-98)
The EPA's indecision in the past was a problem for the registrant, the seed company, and cotton growers. For the past two years, EPA had not made a definite decision before it was time for growers to make seed decisions for the upcoming cotton season.
The USDA/APHIS announced that AgrEvo corn CBH-351 is no longer considered to be a regulated product. CBH-351 is insect resistant and tolerant of glufosinate herbicide (FR, 5-15-98)
The EPA approved a new Bacillus thuringiensis corn (StarLink) by AgrEvo. StarLink uses B.t. toxin Cry9C to kill European corn borer. This particular strain of B.t. (subspecies toworthi) is not available in any sprayable form of B.t. Additionally, StarLink is tolerant of Liberty herbicide.
The Agency requires a 25 percent untreated refugia or a 40 precent refugia that is sprayed with insecticides other than B.t. (FR, 5-22-98)
In interesting about-face, Monsanto will support European labeling of genetically engineered foods. The policy change probably results from public opposition in Europe to engineered foods. One major supermarket chain in England will not include genetically engineered components into its major brands. Consumers in Austria and Luxembourg are calling for a ban of all genetically engineered foods.
The American Soybean Association still opposes this type of labeling. About 30 percent of U.S. soybeans will be planted to Roundup Ready varieties. Approx. 60 percent of all supermarket products contain some soybean product. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem. News, 5-798)
Just a note. Monsanto acquired Delta & Pine Land Co. (DeltaPine Seeds); Monsanto was acquired by American Home Products within weeks. You can't tell the players without a scorecard. (Maybe that's part of the strategy.)
Do you want to get something changed? Let the federal government know about it in a BIG way. The USDA is going to revise the Organic Food Standards. More than 200,000 letters (a record number) of protest were received, primarily because the USDA definition was not considered 'organic' enough. Most of the opposition was to USDA proposals to include genetically engineered crops, sewage sludge, and ionizing radiation sterilization into the definition.
Notice to EPA: A colleague of mine recently needed to know what new pesticides had been registered. I referred him to the EPA Web page. If you visit the EPA Web site to find out what new pesticides have been registered, it is clearly stated that this information is updated annually by Jihad Alsadek. The latest information was from 1994, and Dr. Alsadek confirmed that the information had not been updated for four years. My colleague needed this information; producers wanted to know. The reputation of EPA was not enhanced.
The following pesticide registrations will be canceled by EPA at the request of the registrants unless the requests are withdrawn by November 2, 1998. Typically, sales of the pesticides may continue for one year, and end-users may apply all pesticide in their possession according to the labeling.
|Hysan 006 Weed Killer||Raid Formula D147 for Crawling Insects|
|SMCP Diazinon Insect Spray||Raid Roach and Ant Killer Formula III|
|SMCP Diazinon 4S||Raid Roach and Ant Killer Formula IV|
|SMCP Diazinon RP 12.5 E Insecticide||Raid Flea Killer V Plus|
|SMCP Diazinon RP 25E||Raid Flea Killer VI Plus|
|SMCP Diazinon 6-S||Raid Ant and Roach Killer 5|
|SMCP Diazinon 12.5% Insect Spray||Flea, Tick and Mange Dip|
|Diazinon Insecticide Liquid 1%||Unicorn Dursban Flea Spray for Dogs|
|Diazinon 4AG||Unicorn Chlorpyrifos Dog Dip|
|Pratt Diazinon 18E Insect Spray||Unicorn Dursban Flea and Tick Dog Dip|
|Pratt Diazinon AG4E Insect Spray||Unicorn Dursban Room Fogger|
|Miller's Whack Wasp-Hornet-Ant-Roach Killer||Azinphos methyl 50W|
|Germotox Disinfectant Deodorant||Micro Flo Dyfonate|
|Disinfectant Pump Spray||Orthene Specialty Concentrate|
|Fyfanon ULV||Tapp Powdered Pyrethrum|
|Raid Aqueous Ant and Roach Killer||B&G Tapp 1.3|
|Raid Water-based Residual Liquid||B&G SYN-PY-TE-35 Transparent Emulsion Spray|
|Raid Roach and Ant Killer||Dursban 1D|
|Raid Formula 34 Insect Spray||B&G Pyrenone General Purpose Spray|
|Raid Formula 33 Insect Spray||Tapp General Purpose Residual Spray|
|Raid Formula 32 Insect Spray||Syn-Perm Insecticide for Plants|
|Raid Formula 36 Insect Spray||B&G Flixi-Dust|
|Insect Spray for Crawling Insects||Roof Saver|
|Raid Household Roach and Ant Killer||Bug Master Strips|
Propazine tolerances are being cancelled on sorghum. Don't get up in arms; the registrant canceled the product registration in 1990. (EPA For Your Information, 3-27-98)
If you do not know what FQPA is, where have you been? Check out our back issues on the Web.
The Chairman and Ranking Member of the House Commerce Committee are not happy with EPA implementation of FQPA. (Who is?) "The use of unrealistic, inappropriate assumptions, such as computer models that estimate drinking water exposures based on farm ponds (hard to believe but true), was never intended. The use of such unsound information will not further public health and could seriously jeopardize American food production." [They] "strongly support EPA's efforts to ... reduce pesticide use where possible. [They also] recognize the important role currently registered products will continue to play in these successful programs."
They add that EPA should not measure its success with FQPA by the number of pesticides they can remove from the market [Amen]. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem. News, 3-12-98)
My comments: Many, or most, OPs/Carbamates/B2s should not be removed forcibly from the market EVER. They promote public health because they provide fruits and vegetables to American consumers at the lowest possible price. Some Ops/carbamates/B2s are probably too risky (particularly if people use them illegally), but most of them break down very quickly and cannot be detected on foods. The dietary risk is near zero; the risk to applicators is very low IF they follow label directions.
The EPA will give priority to new pesticides that are considered to be reduced-risk alternatives to organophosphates. Other pesticides that are considered alternatives to organophosphates may be given priority even if they do not qualify as reduced-risk. The only higher priority is reserved for alternatives to methyl bromide. (Headquarters News Release, 5-22-98)
What if we cannot control lesser cornstalk borer (LCB) damage on peanut without an OP? LCB damage to peanuts has a 94% correlation with aflatoxin. Aflatoxin (produced by secondary infection of the nut) is one of the most potent carcinogens ever discovered.
Will organophosphates and carbamates be considered in the same risk cup? Who cares? If both these pesticide groups are considered together, the impacts of FQPA will much more severe to agriculture. When the risk cup overflows, some pesticide restriction (likely some cancellations) must occur.
The Consumer's Union says that OPs and carbamates must be considered together. Both of them do affect acety1cholinesterase (a critical nerve enzyme). The Scientific Advisory Panel is undecided. Some scientists argue against lumping the OPs and carbamates, but others report that more data are necessary to decide. (Pesticide Report, 3-31-98)
The assistant administrator of OPPTS, Lynn Goldman, stated that EPA is nowhere near canceling all OP pesticides. It is clear, however, from earlier documents that EPA was considering the cancellation of all OP pesticides. The loud backlash from agriculture has made EPA rethink their position (good for us). There is no one in agriculture or Congress or EPA that is against the safety of children. No farmer wants any children to eat foods with unsafe pesticide residues. The current evidence indicates that the pesticide residues on foods are safe. Let us look diligently for evidence to the contrary and make decisions based on information, not scary rhetoric.
Marcia Mulkey, Director of the Office of Pesticide Programs (she answers to Lynn Goldman), stated that OPP has enough information to make 'sound, science based' decisions regarding organophosphates. She adds, 'when it comes to removing things from the market' the Agency has more data now than when the pesticides were introduced. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem. News, 3-19-98)
My comments: The EPA has very little information regarding how children are exposed to pesticides in and around the home, yet these data are a critical part of the FQPA decision process. It is no surprise that the Agency has more information now than when the pesticides were registered; some of the organophosphates have been registered for decades.
Do not be tempted to use a pesticide illegally even if you think it will do a good job. Last year, one processor in California contaminated strawberries with Hepatitis A. Georgia sales at pick-your-own strawberries dropped 30 percent!
Envision this situation. One grower in Georgia uses a pesticide illegally on peanuts. The story is picked by the national news. A celebrity or talk show host states "I am afraid to eat peanuts from Georgia." You can guess the rest. Don't use pesticides illegally. Don't let your neighbors use pesticides illegally. Don't give pesticides to friends and neighbors to 'take care of a dog problem.' The entire industry could face severe consequences.
Hazardous materials must be transported in accordance with Department of Transportation HazMat Regulations (HMR). They tell you how to classify the materials, how to package them, how to identify your truck, etc.
Farmers are allowed exceptions when they transport agricultural products to/from their farm or between fields. Agricultural products include hazardous materials used to support farming operations, such as fertilizer, pesticide, soil amendment, or fuel. Ag. products are limited to flammable/nonflammable gases, flammable or combustible liquids, corrosive materials, miscellaneous hazardous materials, oxidizers, poisons, consumer commodities. I do not know what other hazardous materials are not included in this list, but they are not agricultural products. You probably can't transport nuclear weapons or other high explosives.
If you transport agriculture products between your fields using local roads, you do not have to comply with any HMR requirements. You must still obey any state regulations (and use common sense).
If you are a farmer transporting ag. products to or from your farm (within 150 miles of the farm), you must comply with hazard communication (shipping papers and placards) and incident reporting. You do not have to comply with emergency response and training requirements of HMR.
If you want the whole scoop, call the Hazardous Materials Infoline at 800-4674922 or hit the Web. http://hazmat.dot.gov
The appearance of any trade name in this newsletter is not intended to endorse that product nor convey negative implications of unmentioned products.
The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter is a monthly journal for extension agents, extension specialists, and others interested in pest management news. It provides information on legislation, regulations, and other issues affecting pest management in Georgia.
Do not regard the information in this newsletter as pest management recommendations. Consult the Georgia Pest Control Handbook, other extension publications, or appropriate specialists for this information.
Your input in this newsletter is encouraged.
If you wish to be added to the mailing list, just call us at 706-542-1765
Or write us:
Department of Entomology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602
Or visit us on the Web. You will find all the back issues there and other useful information.
Paul Guillebeau, Assistant Professor & Extension Entomologist