Cooperative Extension Service
The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences

Your source for pest management and pesticide news

November 2003/Volume 26, No. 11

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration implemented a new food facility registration program
You can receive the electronic version of GPMN in several ways
There will be a Georgia Clean Day pesticide collection in Adel on December 10

HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Doctors are advising people not to use syrup of ipecac to induce vomiting in the event of poisoning
The EPA asked the Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to evaluate the Agency's draft risk assessment on pressure-treated wood

FEDERAL NEWS

The revised Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision (IRED) for atrazine is available for comment
The EPA has approved the first genetically engineered corn that controls two different groups of insects

MONEY

The U.S. Armed Forces Pest Management Board plans to fund research to protect soldiers from disease vectors
The National Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program will fund projects to reduce the risks of pesticides
The United States Postal Service (USPS)
intends to award one or more contracts to provide Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Services

NEWS YOU CAN USE

This web site can help in the battle against non-native invasive plants
Pesticide notification letters in Spanish, Vietnamese, and Korean are available through the Pennsylvania IPM Program
DuPont has acquired the Georgia-based Griffin Corporation
The Organization of North American Agricultural Journalists compiled a list of the ten most important agricultural events

CANCELLED

According to the Environmental News Network, the decisions regarding critical use exemptions for methyl bromide was deferred to next year
The New York Times reports that the Bush administration seeks international support for broad exemptions for methyl bromide

DON'T DO IT

An administrative law judge ruled that Allatoona Exterminating Company and its owner committed 96 violations of the Georgia Structural Control Act
According to some colleagues in other states, a pesticide called Dead!SAFE may not be all the company claims


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration implemented a new food facility registration program. There is no fee, but every commercial facility that manufactures, processes, packs or holds food for human consumption MUST register with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by December 12, 2003.

The FDA expects over 400,000 facilities to be registered by December 12. Do not wait until the last minute -- you might not be able to get online! If you have any doubts whether to register or not, either call the FDA at 1-800-216-7331, email them at furls@fda.gov, or go ahead and register before the deadline.

There are several ways to register: complete the seven-page Form 3537 (download at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~furls/frm3537.pdf -- requires Adobe Acrobat Reader program on your computer to open) and mail or fax it in, or register online at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~furls/ovffreg.html .

You can receive the electronic version of GPMN in several ways. It is attached to this message as a pdf file, or you can read GPMN on the web at http://pubs.caes.uga.edu/caespubs/entomology/pestnewsletter/newsarchive.html. If you wish to receive GPMN in the body of an e-mail, send a note to tall@bugs.ent.uga.edu

There will be a Georgia Clean Day pesticide collection in Adel on December 10.Clean Day is a joint effort between the Georgia Department of Agriculture and UGA Cooperative Extension. The program collects and disposes of pesticides at no cost to the participants. So far, Clean Day has safely disposed of more than one million pounds of unwanted pesticides!

For more information, call Ben Tucker at the Cook County Extension office (229-896-7456) or Steve Cole (404-656-4958) at the Georgia Department of Agriculture.

If you want to organize a Clean Day event in your area, ask your county extension agent to talk with Steve Cole. The program has a limited budget, but we want to offer this service as widely as possible.

Health and the Environment

Doctors are advising people not to use syrup of ipecac to induce vomiting in the event of poisoning. Although syrup of ipecac has been recommended for years, there was never much data to indicate that it was effective. Research indicated that vomiting was not much help in treating poisoning victims. Additionally, people with bulimia or Munchausen syndrome by proxy abused syrup of ipecac. Poisoning deaths have dropped dramatically in the last 50 years, but most emergency rooms now use activated charcoal instead of syrup of ipecac.

Prevention remains the key tool in avoiding pesticide poisoning. Keep pesticides and other poisons away from children. Post the national Poison Control number 800-222-1222. Call 911 if the victim is convulsing, unconscious, or not breathing.
(American Acad. of Pediatrics News Release, http://www.aap.org/advocacy/releases/novpoison.htm )

The EPA asked the Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to evaluate the Agency's draft risk assessment on pressure-treated wood. The draft assessment evaluates the potential risks to children who play on playsets and decks made with wood pressure-treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). This draft risk assessment focuses on a number of new predictive models and data sources that have been used to better quantify and understand potential risks associated with exposure to CCA-treated wood. The Agency is asking the SAP to review these new approaches and to provide comments to further refine the draft assessment.

It is important to note the draft risk assessment findings are preliminary and subject to additional analysis. Therefore, it is premature to reach conclusions about the potential for CCA-treated playsets and decks to contribute to cancer risk in children. In Feb. 2002, the manufacturers of CCA informed the Agency that they would voluntarily cancel their registrations for residential uses of CCA-treated wood. As a result of their voluntarily cancelled registrations, wood intended for uses such as playground equipment, decks, fences, walkways and landscape timbers cannot legally be treated with CCA after Dec. 30 of this year. In addition to the SAP review, the Agency is conducting a study on whether sealants can reduce or eliminate exposure to arsenic in CCA-treated wood as a further way to help consumers make informed choices around their home. Results from this study are expected in 2004. For further information, the draft risk assessment is available at: http://www.epa.gov/scipoly/sap. For more information on CCA-treated wood, go to http://www.epa.gov/pesticides//.

One big obvious question is whether parents, schools, daycare centers, etc., should immediately replace playsets made from wood treated with CCA. A scientific review may not answer this question. Suppose you own a daycare center, and you choose not to replace a CCA wood playset because the EPA assessment indicated very low risk associated with CCA wood. A child in your care is diagnosed with a rare illness. Would the EPA assessment protect you from liability if the parents of the ill child sue you? I do not know the answer to that question, but it might be a good idea to discuss it with your insurance company and/or your attorney.

The second question focuses on disposal of the CCA wood, particularly if large numbers of childcare facilities replace CCD wood playsets. The wood can legally go into a Construction & Demolition (C&D) landfill. CCA wood should not be burned or dumped outside of a C&D landfill. There is some concern about CCA wood ending up as shredded materials sold for mulch. Again, no one really knows if CCA mulch would cause a significant risk.

Federal News

The revised Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision (IRED) for atrazine is available for comment until February 5, 2004. The IRED presents possible association between atrazine exposure and human cancers. The document also examines a potential link between atrazine and amphibian development. The document is considered interim because this information will ultimately be considered as part of an analysis of all of the triazine herbicides.

Several studies have suggested that atrazine may be related to environmental and human health problems. For some time, atrazine has been implicated by association with developmental problems observed in frogs and other amphibians. Because atrazine can be detected almost everywhere, a cause and effect relationship with the frogs is a tempting conclusion. However, the ubiquitous nature of atrazine also means that the easy conclusion may be masking the real cause of the problem. More recently, researchers found that workers in an atrazine manufacturing plant had elevated rates of prostate cancer. Finally, there have been several incidents of atrazine occurring in surface drinking water at levels exceeding EPA guidelines. The European Union has withdrawn atrazine registration over concerns about water contamination.

You will find more information at http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-PEST/2003/November/Day-07/p28101.htm, or you can contact Eric R. Olson, Special Review and Reregistration Division at (703) 308-8067 or olson.eric@epa.gov.* (EPA Pesticide Program Update, 11-10-03)

The EPA has approved the first genetically engineered corn that controls two different groups of insects. YieldGard Plus produces two different Bacillus thuringiensis proteins with activity against a moth (European corn borer) and a beetle (corn rootworm). This combination of protection is referred to as "stacking."

This new variety was produced through a combination of genetic engineering and traditional breeding. YieldGard and YieldGard Rootworm were hybridized to produce YieldGard Plus. You can find more information about how EPA regulates biotechnology at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides.

Money

The U.S. Armed Forces Pest Management Board plans to fund research to protect soldiers from disease vectors. They plan to fund 6-8 projects for up to $250,000 apiece. For more information, contact, Richard N. Johnson, Ph.D. at (301) 295-8315 or richard.johnson@osd.mil The official RFP has not been issued, but you may want to discuss promising ideas with Johnson.

  1. The National Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program will fund projects to reduce the risks of pesticides. The types of projects that will be considered include education, demonstration, outreach, risk reduction, outcome and performance measurement/monitoring, risk mitigation, and technology transfer. Projects must have measurable goals and outcomes and should focus on one of the following areas.
    Outreach, communications, technology transfer, and information networks to promote use of reduced risk pest control methods, etc.
  2. Promoting use of bio-pesticides and reduced risk pesticides.
  3. IPM in schools, and
  4. Development of outcomes and performance measurements to enhance the ability of IPM practitioners to measure the effectiveness of reduced risk pest management techniques

Any organization is eligible to apply. The application deadline is December 30. You can find the details at http://www.ipm-education.org/

The United States Postal Service (USPS) intends to award one or more contracts to provide Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Services to postal facilities within the 48 contiguous United States (CONUS), Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Supplier(s) shall provide all management, labor, materials, equipment, transportation and subcontracting necessary to furnish IPM services as detailed in the Statement of Work (Attachment 2) and the supplier's technical proposal. The initial period of performance will be a 4-year period with USPS option to extend for 3 additional 2-year periods. Award will be made to the pre-qualified offeror(s) who offer the best value to the USPS. To be considered for pre-qualification, prospective offerors must submit technical proposals and initial price proposals (Attachment 3, 4 and 5) to provide the required services. After evaluation of technical and initial price proposals, all offerors will be notified whether or not they have been determined to be a pre-qualified offeror. Only pre-qualified offerors will be invited to participate in the online Competitive Bidding Event (reverse auction) by FreeMarkets. For more information, contact Janis Nichols, Purchasing & Material Management Specialist, Phone (214) 819-7119, Fax (214) 819-7125, Email jnichol2@email.usps.gov -- Shari Martin, Purchasing Specialist, Phone (214) 819-7107, Fax (214) 819-7125, Email smartin4@email.usps.gov (PCT Online, 11-3-03)

News You Can Use

This web site http://www.invasive.org/eastern/ can help in the battle against non-native invasive plants. Exotic, invasive plants are a tremendous problem across the United States. They choke waterways, degrade pastures, take over natural areas, and disrupt natural ecosystems. In many cases, there are no effective natural controls for the exotic plant, and they spread across large areas. Some plants are introduced on purpose with good intentions (e.g., kudzu); others are released by accident. The web site has information about identification, range, and management.

Pesticide notification letters in Spanish, Vietnamese, and Korean are available through the Pennsylvania IPM Program. Schools and pest control companies regularly need to notify parents when pesticides are going to be applied around schools. In many areas, notification was a problem because the parents spoke a language other than English. You can find the letters at http://paipm.cas.psu.edu/schools/schoolMangm.htm#paipm.

DuPont has acquired the Georgia-based Griffin Corporation. Griffin has five pesticide manufacturing sites in North and South America. DuPont said that the acquisition would help them offer a greater variety of chemicals for cotton, fruit, vegetable, and professional products. Contact Gabrielle King 302-999-5393 or gabrielle.king@usa.dupont.com for more information. Thanks to Mark Crawford for this notification.

The Organization of North American Agricultural Journalists compiled a list of the 10 most important agricultural events. The top 10 were voted upon from a list of 40 events prepared by R. Douglas Hurt of Iowa State University, C. Fred Williams of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock and David Vaught of Texas A&M University. As you consider the list, keep in mind that changes in agriculture change the world.

10. Integration of the poultry industry. Before the 1960s, most farmers ran a few chickens for meat and eggs. The introduction of antibiotics and cheap corn industrialized chicken production. Now, a few companies that pay cooperators to manage the chickens control commercial chicken production. The swine industry seems to be heading in the same direction.

9. Adoption of anhydrous ammonia fertilizer. Before this cheap source of nitrogen fertilizer (produced with natural gas), growers relied primarily on animal manures and leguminous plants to provide nitrogen. The abundance of cheap nitrogen made high corn and wheat yields feasible.

8. A tie. Adoption of no-till and the farm population dropping below 2 percent of the U.S. population. No-till has greatly reduced erosion associated with agriculture. The relatively tiny farm population means that agricultural policies and regulations may be determined by a majority that understands little about agriculture.

7. Use of antibiotics for livestock and poultry. The Food and Drug Administration approved this practice nearly 50 years ago. Adding antibiotics to the feed of hogs and chickens makes the animals grow faster, and it makes it easier to confine large numbers of animals with fewer disease outbreaks.

6. Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring. This book, published in 1962, gave a big push to the environmental movement. For the first time, many people began to understand the unwanted side effects associated with the overuse of pesticides.

5. Agricultural debt crisis. In the 1980s, the Federal Reserve Bank encouraged higher interest rates to slow inflation. Many family farms were forced out of business; rural banks failed; and many small town economies were crippled.

4. The Green Revolution. Plant breeder Norman Borlaug won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield dwarf varieties of wheat. The new wheat produced two to three times more grain and was resistant to a variety of pests. This innovation saved millions of people from famine. Pakistan produced 8.4 million tons in 1970, up from 4.6 million in 1965. India's production was 20 million tons in 1970, up from 12.3 million 1965.

3. Discovery of DNA. James Watson and Francis Crick identified the chemical structure that guides genetics in 1953. This discovery was the beginning of the biotechnology revolution.

2. Genetically modified crops. In less than one decade, U.S. agriculture has widely adopted this new technology that enables some plants to kill pests and others to tolerate herbicides. We have only just begun to see the agricultural implications of biotechnology.

1. Hybridization and other crop improvements. In 1917, U.S. farmers set the record for corn acreage with 110.89 million. The average yield was only 26.2 bushels an acre. With the introduction of double-cross hybrid varieties, corn yields grew to more than 50 bushels per acre in 1958. The average national yield in 2002 was 130 bushels per acre. Thanks to Bob Bellinger for the top 10 list.

As you can see, many of the developments are closely tied together. Without cheap nitrogen, growers do not produce 130 bushels of corn per acre. The Green Revolution in wheat undoubtedly pushed corn breeders along. The introduction of antibiotics allowed the vertical integration of the poultry and swine industries.

Some people might label this list as some of the worst things that have ever happened in agriculture. Antibiotics in animal feeds may cause an increased risk of resistance in disease organisms. The concentration of animal production caused additional problems with waste management. Opponents condemn the potential risks of biotechnology. Perhaps the conclusion is that knowledge brings additional responsibility and innovations usually offer benefits and risks.

Cancelled

According to the Environmental News Network, the decisions regarding critical use exemptions for methyl bromide was deferred to next year. The delegates of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer agreed that they need more time. The 'extraordinary meeting' will be held in Montreal, Canada, in March 2004 to continue the 1996 phase out process for methyl bromide.

In case you have been in a secure, undisclosed location, many scientists think that manmade methyl bromide threatens the earth's layer of atmospheric ozone. Although ozone is an important air pollutant at the surface, the ozone layer in the atmosphere shields the earth from ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Methyl bromide and some other chemicals can break down ozone. Many countries agreed to phase out the use of the use of ozone depleting substances.

For some commodities, growers contend that there is no feasible alternative for methyl bromide. Developing countries around the world have asked for critical use exemptions that would allow growers to continue the use of methyl bromide. The UN delegates met to discuss how the exemptions would be divided among various countries.

Many people consider the Montreal Protocol to be one of the great environmental success stories. Developed countries have already phased out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that were once commonly used in products like fridges and hair sprays. Developed countries have reduced consumption of methyl bromide by 70 per cent since the mid-1990s.
(PCT Online Newsletter, 11-14-03)

With any decision of this magnitude, big time global politics plays an important role. On one hand, everyone takes a threat to the ozone layer seriously, but there is debate about the magnitude of the risk associated with manmade methyl bromide. Conversely, agriculture is an important political player in every developed country. You cannot have a phase out without some major players getting less methyl bromide than they want. The government of every country wants to be sure their constituents receive their "fair" share of methyl bromide.

The New York Times reports that the Bush administration seeks international support for broad exemptions for methyl bromide. In addition to the United States, a dozen other industrialized countries are seeking exemptions as well, including eight from the European Union. However, the United States requests about 10,000 tons of methyl bromide per year; all of the other requests total about 6,000 tons per year.

The methyl bromide issue may widen a dispute between Europe and the United States that hinges on a number of environmental issues, including the Kyoto Protocol, the treaty controlling emissions linked to global warming, rejected by President Bush.

Government officials from the United States have been asking worldwide political allies to support the exemptions that could cause a substantial increase in U.S. use of methyl bromide. Some industry lobbyists encourage support by contending that manmade methyl bromide is not a significant threat to atmospheric ozone. You can find out more at http://www.unep.org/ozone/index.shtml (PCT Online, 11-10-03)

Don't Do It

An administrative law judge ruled that Allatoona Exterminating Company and its owner committed 96 violations of the Georgia Structural Control Act and imposed a $1,000 fine for each violation. That's nearly $100,000 for those of you who slept through math class. The judge also revoked the structural pest control license. (PCT Online, 11-14-03)

According to the Georgia Department of Agriculture (GDA), the violations involve applications of pesticides in Cobb and Bartow county school systems. More than 120 classroom buildings are involved as well as other school system buildings. "We have discovered numerous violations, including spraying in classrooms while children were present, unregistered employees performing treatments, incomplete records and failure to notify the schools regarding what pesticides were used," said Georgia Agriculture Commissioner Tommy Irvin. "These are serious and disturbing allegations that need to be addressed."

The Allatoona Exterminating Company is probably finished in Georgia. This ruling may also open the company up to lawsuits from the schools, school personnel, and parents. Do not put yourself and your company in this position.

The GDA and we are concerned that this case is one of many serious violations in Georgia. In case you missed the lesson, the Commissioner and the GDA take pesticide misuse around schools very seriously. If your company handles sensitive accounts (e.g., schools, hospitals, daycares, etc.), review your procedures to ensure you are in full compliance with all pertinent regulations. Contact the Georgia Structural Pest Control Commission http://www.kellysolutions.com/ga/gspcc/default.asp?MS=6 if you need more information.

According to some colleagues in other states, a pesticide called Dead!SAFE may not be all the company claims. We have received several e-mails from other states that caution against this product. It has not appeared to be as effective as claimed, and there may be some irregularities in the registration as well. I have not heard reports of Dead!SAFE in Georgia, but the company claims to market in the southeast.

The appearance of any trade name in this newsletter is not intended to endorse that product nor convey negative implications of unmentioned products.

Dear Readers:

The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter is a monthly journal for extension agents, extension specialists, and others interested in pest management news. It provides information on legislation, regulations, and other issues affecting pest management in Georgia.

Do not regard the information in this newsletter as pest management recommendations. Consult the Georgia Pest Management Handbook, other extension publications, or appropriate specialists for this information.

Your input in this newsletter is encouraged.

If you wish to be added to the mailing list, send an e-mail to tall@bugs.ent.uga.edu 

Or write us:

Department of Entomology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602
E-mail:  mailto:pbuillebeau@bugs.ent.uga.edu

Or visit us on the Web. You will find all the back issues there and other useful information.

http://pubs.caes.uga.edu/caespubs/entomology/pestnewsletter/newsarchive.html

Sincerely:

Paul Guillebeau, Associate Professor & Extension Entomologist