Cooperative Extension Service
The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences

Your Source for Pest Management and Pesticide News

August, 2002/Volume 25, No. 8

We are rapidly approaching the September 9, 2002, deadline to apply for a methyl bromide critical use exemption


Pesticide companies and EPA are working to fill market niches and production needs created by FQPA and reregistration activities
Be sure of your alternatives as you make plans to move away from older pesticides


The EPA issued the RED (reregistration eligibility document) for endosulfan
The EPA released the Revised Cumulative OP Risk Assessment earlier this summer
Here is the latest report on some individual organophosphates
According to EPA, the Agency has reached its goal for the reassessment of pesticide tolerances
The EPA has completed a review of lindane


Guam has been overrun with brown tree snakes, and acetaminophen may be the remedy for this headache

We are rapidly approaching the September 9, 2002, deadline to apply for a methyl bromide critical use exemption. If your business needs methyl bromide, you should consider an application. An application does not guarantee that you will receive an exemption, but your commodity will not be considered for an exemption without an application. A critical use exemption will allow the use of methyl bromide beyond January 1, 2005.

Quarantine and shipping uses are exempt, but agriculture, building fumigation and other uses must have an exemption. You can still apply next year, but there are risks associated with waiting.

The Georgia Fruit and Vegetable Association is applying for an exemption to cover pepper, tomato, cucumber, squash, cantaloupe and eggplant. Other states and/or organizations are applying as well. If you think you may need an exemption, contact your professional organization or the Georgia Extension Service. The application does not have to be perfect by September 9; the EPA will contact you if additional information is needed.

Find the details at

News You Can Use

Pesticide companies and EPA are working to fill market niches and production needs created by FQPA and reregistration activities. Please keep in mind that the mention of these products is not an endorsement. You are strongly advised to contact your local extension office for specific pesticide recommendations.

Acetamiprid (Aventis CropScience) is a new active ingredient conditionally registered by EPA in March. The EPA classified acetamiprid as a "reduced-risk" pesticide (find out all about the reduced risk program at The products are marketed as OP-alternatives for insecticides like acephate on cotton and azinphos-methyl on apples. Acetamiprid was registered for control of sucking-type insects on leafy vegetables, fruiting vegetables, cole crops, citrus fruits, pome fruits, grapes, cotton, and ornamental plants and flowers.

Novaluron (Makhteshim-Agan) insecticide was granted OP Alternative Status for New (First Food) Uses on Pome Fruit and Cotton in March. Novaluron is a potential alternative for many pesticide uses on pome fruit and cotton, including organophosphates (azinphos methyl, dicrotophos, chlorpyrifos, and acephate); carbamates (carbaryl and oxamyl); pyrethroids (lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, and esfenvalerate); and an organochlorine (endosulfan). Novaluron is an insect growth regulator that works by chitin inhibition; its broad-spectrum activity is unique among the growth regulators.

Pyriproxyfen (Valent) was granted conventional "Reduced-Risk" and OP Alternative Status for New Uses. EPA granted "reduced-risk" and OP alternative status for use on the tropical fruits sugar apple, cherimoya, atemoya, custard apple, ilama, soursop, biriba, avocado, papaya, star apple, black sapote, mango, sapodilla, canistel, mamey sapote, pineapple, white sapote, ugli fruit, bananas, plantains, and coffee. Pyriproxyfen, a growth hormone mimic, could be an organophosphate alternative to control scale insects. EPA has previously granted pyriproxyfen conventional "reduced-risk" status for numerous uses, and the Agency has already registered many of those uses.

Spinosad (Dow AgroSciences) was granted an Experimental Use Permit (EUP) for Conventional "Reduced-Risk" Insecticide on Stored Grains earlier this summer. The EUP will permit evaluation for control of multiple insect pests infesting grain during storage, including the lesser grain borer, red flour beetle, and rusty grain beetle in stored grains (wheat, barley, corn, oats, rice and sorghum/milo). We desperately need some new options for stored grains.

Indoxacarb (DuPont) was granted "reduced-risk" /OP alternative status in support of new uses on alfalfa, peanuts, lettuce, potatoes, and soybeans. Western grower interest for this chemical has been intense, and registration of indoxacarb on alfalfa prevented an Emergency Exemption (Section 18) request on behalf of the California Alfalfa & Forage Association. The Washington and Oregon potato growers, as well as the California alfalfa growers, have been informed of the registration of these new uses.

Be sure of your alternatives as you make plans to move away from older pesticides. Current production of southeastern peaches requires the use of an organophosphate, such as phosmet. The peach industry has made plans to reduce or eliminate their need for an OP; the plan is partially based on the availability of neonicotinoid insecticides. However, it appears that the risk cup for this chemistry may be nearly full. It may not be possible to register neonicotinoids on peaches without reducing the risk cup in other areas.

Food Quality Protection Act -- Reregistration

The EPA issued the RED (reregistration eligibility document) for endosulfan. A RED states the EPA position concerning the risks of a particular pesticide and outlines the steps necessary for continued registration. Typically, the RED mandates changes to the pesticide label (e.g., longer reentry interval) intended to reduce pesticide risks. The endosulfan RED requires considerable changes to the label. If you care about endosulfan, you should take a look. Sometimes EPA recommends label changes that make the pesticide unusable for some situations.

The Heath Effects Division of EPA determined that the acute dietary risk for endosulfan exceeded the level of concern for children from one to six years old. Because green beans, garden green peas, summer squash, spinach, and tomatoes are the major contributors, these crops may be deleted from the label. The EPA also has concerns about worker safety and environmental risks. Visit this web site for more information.

The EPA released the Revised Cumulative OP Risk Assessment earlier this summer. You can read it at From an Environmental News Service (6-13-02) report, the cumulative assessment indicated that 28 of the 30 organophosphate insecticides reviewed did not pose unreasonable risks.

The news was not as good for dichlorvos (DDVP) and dimethoate. Both insecticides were linked to a variety of health problems, including headaches, nausea, neurological disorders, and even death. The EPA is expected to take significant regulatory action against both pesticides. Registrations for both dichlorvos and dimethoate could be cancelled.

The organophosphate review was part of the settlement agreement reached with the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC).The activist group sued EPA, claiming that the Agency was not acting quickly enough to implement the Food Quality Protection Act.

The NRDC is still not satisfied; they contend that the EPA cumulative assessment failed to account for all pesticide threats to children.

Here is the latest report on some individual organophosphates.

Azinphos-methyl remains under conditional registration. The registrant will have to submit additional data or the registrations will expire in 2005. Even with additional data, azinphos-methyl may face regulatory action, including cancellation of some uses.

Disulfoton is eligible for reregistration, pending a full reassessment of the cumulative risk from all OP pesticides, and provided that all the conditions identified in the IRED document are satisfied, including implementation of risk mitigation measures. Without the risk mitigation measures, disulfoton products may pose unreasonable adverse effects on human health and the environment. Mitigation plans call for a phase out on wheat, barley, potatoes, and commercially grown ornamentals by June 2005.

According to EPA (8-02-02), the Agency has reached its goal for the reassessment of pesticide tolerances. Tolerance: the amount of pesticide that can legally remain on a food. The Food Quality Act required EPA to complete their review of more than 66% of pesticide tolerances by August 3, 2002. The EPA has reassessed over 6,400. The Agency also prioritized specific pesticide classes for assessment and risk mitigation, including the organophosphate, carbamate, organochlorine classes, as well as pesticides that show evidence of carcinogenicity. Depending on the specific class, EPA has completed tolerance reassessment for half and up to three-quarters of the individual pesticides in each of these various classes. Tolerance reassessment has also included numerous other individual pesticides that are not part of these specific classes. The EPA has reassessed almost two-thirds of the tolerances for foods commonly eaten by children, revoking more than 1,900 tolerances.

Additional information on tolerance reassessment is available on EPA's web site:

Information on chemicals in reregistration:

The EPA has completed a review of lindane. The currently registered lindane products (for seed treatment on six crops) are eligible for reregistration if the registrants make the changes specified in the Agency's Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) document and provide certain required data, and if EPA is able to establish any tolerances necessary for residues of lindane in food from currently registered uses. Lindane is currently used in the United States as a pre-plant seed treatment for barley, corn, oats, rye, sorghum, and wheat. Risks of concern for on-farm dust treatment will be mitigated by discontinuing use on barley, oat, rye, and wheat seeds, and allowing corn and sorghum seed treatment with specified additional personal protective equipment (PPE).

The Food and Drug Administration has also approved lindane for prescription pharmaceutical use in shampoos and lotions for lice and mites (scabies) in humans. Based on EPA's current understanding of available data, lindane shampoo products used for head lice treatment do not pose human health risks of concern when used according to label directions. The Agency could not conclude, however, that lindane lotions used for scabies treatment result in acceptable exposure and risk. FDA will implement a number of measures to reduce misuse and risks from use of lindane pharmaceutical products.

If you want more information or to provide feedback regarding the lindane decision, visit this web site The comment period closes at the end of September.

Health and the Environment

Guam has been overrun with brown tree snakes, and acetaminophen may be the remedy for this headache. The venomous snake was accidentally introduced to the island in the 1940s. Population estimates range from 13,000 to 26,000, or a snake every two or three feet! Because the snakes have no natural predators on Guam, the ecological effects have been substantial.

A common ingredient in pain relievers, acetaminophen, is a promising control. Researchers concealed 80 mg of acetaminophen in newborn mice and placed the mice in cages with brown tree snakes. Nearly every snake in the test took the bait and died. Even snakes that regurgitated the mice died.

The EPA has granted USDA-APHIS an emergency exemption to use acetaminophen to control brown tree snakes in Guam. DO NOT, repeat, DO NOT try this snake control method at home. It will not work; it is illegal; and you will probably only poison your own cat. (Science News, 8-10-02)

Thanks to Bob Bellinger for much of the information this month's issue.

The appearance of any trade name in this newsletter is not intended to endorse that product nor convey negative implications of unmentioned products.

Dear Readers:

The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter is a monthly journal for extension agents, extension specialists, and others interested in pest management news. It provides information on legislation, regulations, and other issues affecting pest management in Georgia.

Do not regard the information in this newsletter as pest management recommendations. Consult the Georgia Pest Control Handbook, other extension publications, or appropriate specialists for this information.

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Dr. Paul Guillebeau, Associate Professor & Extension Entomologist