January 24, 1996 Volume 18, no. 1
GREETINGS FROM THE NEW PESTICIDE COORDINATOR!
Temik, Guthion, Furadan, Monitor, Lannate named most dangerous by EPA
PLOWING THE INTERNET
YOUR HEALTH, NEWS TO LIVE BY
Children and pesticides
METHYL BROMIDE, STILL UP IN THE AIR?
Parasitism of American cockroaches
Thirty-six tolerances for pesticides used in animal feeds were revoked by EPA
CONTAINER RECYCLING AND DISPOSAL
Georgia Clean Day
USDA record keeping changes went into effect May 11, 1995.
State management plans concerning groundwater
EPA registered 40 new active ingredients in fiscal 1995
Pesticide registrants submitted their top 5 priority actions
FMC plans to reduce risks from Furadan 4F
EPA policy statement to establish acceptable non-dietary risk as 10-4
EPA weighs fees for pesticide regulatory actions
THE DELANEY CLAUSE: POSSIBLE ACTIONS?
Beet Armyworm: Was EPA Slow to React?
EMERGENCY EXEMPTIONS: METALAXYL
NEW TOOLS, NEWS YOU CAN USE
A new bacterial product
A new virus keeps corn earworm from mating
For those of you that I haven't met, my name is Paul Guillebeau. I was hired to fill the void left behind by the retirement of Dr. Burt Evans (a.k.a. Dr. Bob Evans). My doctorate was awarded by the University of Georgia in entomology (emphasis on ag. pest management). In 1991, I was surprised to find myself in Washington, D.C., working for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It was my job to estimate the benefits that growers and society gain from the use of pesticides. After three and one-half years, my family and I escaped back to Georgia, where I came to work in extension entomology October 1.
My responsibilities here will involve all pesticide issues, including pesticide applicator training, NAPIAP, IR-4, endangered species, and public education about the important role of pesticides in our daily lives. If you need help in these areas or if you identify important pesticide issues, feel free to contact me.
You are reading one of my early goals. The newsletter had lapsed for several months between Dr. Evans retirement and my coming on board.
The newsletter will continue to be a reliable source for information concerning pest management and regulation. In addition, I will provide commentary about pesticide regulation and pest management policy. Some of the commentary will be written by me, but I hope to also publish the insights of other people affected by pesticide issues. If you have something informative to say about pesticide/pest management issues, contact me. We will also publish pertinent letters of general interest. My most important responsibility is to provide the kinds of information you need. Please call/write/FAX me if there are additional items that you wish to see in the newsletter.
The appearance of any trade name in this newsletter is not intended to endorse that product nor convey negative implications of unmentioned products.
Aldicarb (Temik), azinphos-methyl (Guthion), carbofuran (Furadan), methamidophos (Monitor), and methomyl (Lannate) have been named by EPA as the most dangerous pesticides for pesticide handlers and field workers. The registrants for all five have been asked to suggest ways to mitigate the risks related to drift, reentry, and handler/applicator exposure. The proposed EPA measures are reported to go beyond both the Worker Protection Standard and California worker protection regulations. (Do we need the WPS if additional regulations to protect workers are also required?)
According to the EPA, the new regulations will be as protective as possible and still allow use of the products. Specific proposals include closed mix/load systems nationwide and full protective equipment or closed cabs. The sale and use of these pesticides would be limited to only certified applicators; supervision by a certified applicator would not be allowed. Reentry intervals would be increased when any of these five chemicals are mixed with another organophosphate or carbamate. Finally, aerial applicators would have to notify people around the application site prior to spraying. The appearance of any unprotected people who might be exposed to drift would immediately halt the application, and there would be label language addressing droplet size, boom length, application height, etc.
The listing of these five insecticides is a yellow flag. Pay close attention for future developments. It is likely that additional regulatory actions will be directed toward one or more of these chemicals. Being at the top of an EPA list is like wearing a target on your back.
BE CAREFUL WITH THESE PESTICIDES!!! A single poisoning incident may trigger EPA action.
For more information, contact Basil Adcock, 301-504-5827.
Specimen labels and MSDS for all DuPont products are available via the World Wide Web at: http://aginfo.trinet.com/Anyone may read, print, and download the labels and MSDS. The information will be updated monthly. So far, only DuPont information is available, but you can be sure that other companies will soon follow.
Delaware's request for an early entry exception to allow hand-harvest of cantaloupe/squash within 24 hours of Bravo (chlorothalonil) was denied. All other exceptions that were requested during the comment period are also denied.
Crop advisors are exempt from many of the WPS requirements. Crop advisors and people under their supervision can: 1) choose appropriate protective clothing for early entry activities, 2) enter fields anytime after pesticide application, and 3) employers do not have to monitor crop advisors or provide decontamination sites.
After May 1, 1996, WPS exemptions will apply only to crop advisors licensed by the state or certified by a crop consulting organization that is recognized by Ga. People without crop advisor certification can perform crop advisor activities, but they must abide by all WPS requirements.
|Jan. 1, 1996: Workers must receive basic pesticide safety
information before entering treated areas. Ask your county agent for
"Protect Yourself from Pesticides" or "Steps to Protect Yourself from
Pesticides" from EPA.
Workers must be fully trained in 5 days.
|Pesticide handlers and early-entry workers must be trained before starting work.|
|Early entry tasks limited to 1 hour per 24 hour period.||Early entry tasks permitted for 8 hours per 24 hour period.|
|No hand labor.
No early entry within 4 hours of application.
No early entry for pesticides that require oral notification and posting.
|EPA is proposing additional changes that would reduce the time period for which decontamination sites must be supplied for workers (currently 30 days after REI), reduce the size of some posting signs (currently 14" x 16"), and allow languages other than Spanish.|
DuPont is trying to put a cotton line on the market that is genetically engineered for tolerance to sulfonylureas. EPA is soliciting public comments.
Monsanto's new genetically engineered, slow-ripening tomato is no longer considered a regulated article. It is free to go on the market. The public opinion battle over this genetically engineered food may set many precedents for the introduction of additionally engineered foods. As genetically engineered foods and other crops become common, production, marketing and competition in agriculture will change more than any other time in history. Stay informed.
Mycogen Corporation and Pioneer Hi-Bred International will collaborate on the development of transgenic crops. Mycogen is a leader in plant transgenics and Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) gene technology. Pioneer Hi-Bred is the largest seed company in the world, with an extensive plant breeding program. The partnership will try to place B.t. genes in corn, soybeans, sunflowers, canola, sorghum, and other crops.
The EPA placed two major restrictions on Monsanto's new cotton with the Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) gene. It cannot be planted in Hawaii or south of Tampa, Fla. Additionally, 25 acres of conventional cotton must be planted for every 100 acres of B.t. cotton. Unless EPA grants an extension, registration will expire Jan. 1, 2001.
The EPA Pesticide Resistance Management Workgroup reported that it seems possible to manage resistance. However, their fact sheet added that data gaps precluded definite conclusions regarding insect resistance to B.t. cotton without additional field data. Skeptical of the resistance management plans, some groups criticize EPA for registering B.t. cotton.
Resistance plans often do not mitigate resistance. Why does resistance often occur anyway? When I worked for EPA, states often reported resistance management plans, including rotating different chemical classes. However, the usage data indicated that growers were not rotating chemicals. The state/registrant had a resistance management plan, but the growers did not. The morals are two. 1) Plan resistance management strategies that growers will employ. Include growers in the planning process. 2) Growers, follow the resistance management plan or help to develop a strategy that you can and will use. Otherwise, B.t. cotton and other biotech tools may be rapidly lost to resistance.
YOUR HEALTH, NEWS TO LIVE BY
Here are two important reasons to exercise safe use practices. 1) You may save yourself. 2) You may save the chemical. Poisoning incidents attract the attention of EPA and often trigger regulatory action or cancellation.
The July H. Deer newsletter reports that 98% of pesticide exposure can be eliminated by wearing a long-sleeved shirt and chemically resistant gloves. Most people wear gloves when mixing/loading, but forearms are often left exposed. Put a long-sleeve shirt in with your other protective equipment. Keep it clean, but wash it separately from your other laundry.
Children and pesticides
Your young children are at risk from pesticides, and the danger is a lot closer than you think. According to an EPA survey, 50% of all households with children under five have pesticides in unlocked cabinets within the reach of children. Approximately 75% of households without children had unsecured pesticides. Many children are poisoned outside their own homes.
USDA recently tested 12 commonly eaten fruits and vegetables for pesticide residues. Only 1.5% of the samples had residues in violation of federal tolerances. Furthermore, 94% of all residues were below 1 ppm; 60% were less than 0.1 ppm. Three cheers for U.S. agriculture, still providing the best and safest food supply in the world.
The data indicate that pesticide residues on foods pose a small to negligible risk to children. Unsecured pesticides could cause irrevocable harm to a child in seconds. Additionally, removing pesticides from the reach of children is a simple task. In spite of these facts, do you think most parents worry about the household pesticides under the sink or the potential residues on an apple?
METHYL BROMIDE, STILL UP IN THE AIR?
The IFC (Industrial Fumigant Company) Newsletter recently carried the headline, "Great News for Methyl Bromide". The article stated that 'methyl bromide is about to be saved'. Unfortunately, neither of these quotations is true. The regulatory situation has not changed significantly for methyl bromide.
More confusion will follow. In Nature (Oct. 26, '95): soil bacteria may reduce methyl bromide's lifetime by one-third less than previous calculations. Estimates of methyl bromide's ozone depletion potential could be cut by 30 percent. Even reduced, the ozone depleting potential would still exceed the threshold of the Clean Air Act. Additionally, the levels of methyl bromide used in agricultural fumigation typically kill the bacteria that break down methyl bromide. This report may open new avenues for research and will undoubtedly spawn new arguments about methyl bromide
The U.S. Clean Air Act defines methyl bromide as a class I ozone depleter, which means it must be phased out, regardless of the benefits. U.S. growers fear that other countries (e.g., Mexico) will gain an important advantage if they continue to use methyl bromide.
There are exemptions for certain other class I ozone depleters that have an essential use. The Clean Air Act does not specify whether an exemption can apply to methyl bromide.
The EPA reports that the Clinton Administration may develop a mechanism to allow the use of methyl bromide for essential uses beyond the 2001 phase-out date. The EPA, growers and others may be asked to help determine which uses are essential. Most field agriculture may be excluded by a planned provision to recapture methyl bromide after application.
A bill introduced by Dan Miller (R-FL) would exempt methyl bromide from the Clean Air Act unless USDA certifies that there are cost-effective alternatives. Under FIFRA, methyl bromide risks must be balanced against its considerable benefits. The Clean Air Act does not consider benefits, estimated by USDA (1993) to be as much as $1.5 billion in CA, FL, GA, NC, and SC.
Call the Ozone Protection Hotline
(1-800-296-1996) for information. Or, look on the Web. http://www.epa.gov/docs/ozone/mbr/mbrga.htm#q2
Not all uses of 2,4-D are being supported for reregistration. Supported uses include: APPLE, APRICOTS, ASPARAGUS, AQUATICS, BLUEBERRY, CHERRY, CORN, FALLOW LAND, FARMYARDS, FENCEROWS, FILBERTS, FORESTRY, GRASS (seed crop), PASTURE, PEACH, PLUM, POTATO, RANGELANDS, RICE, RIGHTS-OF-WAY, ROADSIDES, SORGHUM, SOYBEANS, SMALL GRAINS (barley, oats, rye, wheat), STRAWBERRY, SUGARCANE, SWEET CORN, TURF, AND WILD RICE.
The following uses are expected to be canceled: ALMONDS, CLOVER, COTTON, AND WALNUTS.
Contact Larry Hammond (DowElanco and Industry Task Force) for additional information. Phone, 317-337-4661
FMC has decided to reinstate the use of Pounce on FENNEL and MUSHROOMS. Additionally, the deletion of SWEET CORN (fresh market in FL) only applies to the high application rate, formerly allowed on fresh market sweet corn in FL. At lower rates, Pounce is still registered for SWEET CORN in every state.
IPM COMES INDOORS
Thirty-six tolerances for pesticides used in animal feeds were revoked by EPA because of the Delaney clause. There is good news, however. Thirty-four of the tolerances were not needed to prevent unadulterated food. The uses of these 34 pesticides are not affected by the revocations.
Two tolerances proposed for revocation will prevent the use of SIMAZINE ON SUGARCANE MOLASSES and TETRACHLORVINPHOS IN ANIMAL FEED.
For additional information, contact Niloufar Nazmi at EPA: 703-308-8028, FAX 308-8041, firstname.lastname@example.org
Cyanazine will be phased out in an agreement between EPA and DuPont. Cyanazine, a broadleaf herbicide registered in corn, cotton, and sorghum, is a possible human carcinogen. Concerns about triazines in groundwater led to phase-out, which will reduce the maximum use rate of cyanazine from the current 6.5 lbs/acre to 5 lbs on Jan. 1, 1997, 3 lbs (1998), and 1 lb (1999). Existing stocks may be used until Dec. 31, 2002. Closed cabs will be required in 1998.
With 95% of cyanazine use, corn is expected to realize the greatest effects from the cyanazine phase-out. Atrazine will be the primary cyanazine replacement on corn, but alachlor, metolachlor, and others may be used as well.
EPA estimates no additional weed control costs for growers, but NAPIAP predicts impacts of $25 million for corn and $14 million for cotton. Compared with the impacts of regulatory actions for other corn and cotton herbicides, the effects estimated for cyanazine are small. If atrazine were banned, the impacts may exceed $1 billion.
Cyanazine was in EPA Special Review, along with simazine and atrazine. Because cyanazine is an alternative for atrazine, loss of cyanazine should protect atrazine registration. By removing the most likely alternative to atrazine, the cyanazine phase-out increases the estimated benefits of atrazine from $700-800 million to more than $1 billion. It will be more difficult for EPA to cancel atrazine without other alternatives. As new alternatives to atrazine are introduced, the benefits of atrazine will be reduced, and regulatory action becomes more likely.
The EPA has received more than 80,000 comments in the triazine Special Review.
Phosdrin (mevinphos) can longer be used. Existing stocks could be used through November 1995. Tolerances are scheduled to be revoked May 31, 1996. The delay in tolerance revocation is a concession to dried crops, like parsley, with sales substantially beyond the harvest date.
Rotenone will not be supported for reregistration for any agricultural uses. The registrants plan to support rotenone registration for fish control and flea/tick/mite/lice control on dogs and cats. The registrants are willing to reconsider site deletions if a third party will develop the necessary data. For more information, contact Joe Conti of the Rotenone Task Force at 201-307-3366 (FAX 307-3384).
Bicep 4.5L, Dual 25G, Cycle Herbicide, Subdue 2E (Ciba-Geigy)
Benlate 50DF (DuPont)
Mylone 99G Soil Fumigant (Haco)
Gas cartridges for burrowing animal control (Ameron)
ICI Spot Weed and Grass Control, Karate Insecticide (Zeneca)
Ford's Yard-X (Agrevo)
851 Wasp and Hornet Killer (Sherwin-Williams)
Clean Crop Crabgrass Preventer Plus Turf Food, Hopkins Mylone 50D Easy-To-Use Soil Fumigant, Hopkins Mylone 85W (Platte Chemical)
Zema Home and Carpet Spray (Zema)
Sabadilla Pest Control (Necessary Organic)
Dichlorvos (DDVP) is being canceled for use on nearly all sites.
Remain registered with modification: GREENHOUSES, MUSHROOM HOUSES, FOOD/NONFOOD ANIMALS (other than poultry).
Remain registered with no modification: insect traps, FEEDLOTS, garbage dumps, kennels, MANURE, and POULTRY.
Proposed for cancellation: airplanes, ORNAMENTAL PLANTS, rail cars, shipholds, trucks, TURF, warehouses (including tobacco), all domestic uses, all bulk, packaged, bagged, processed, or RAW FOOD (except impregnated strips in silos).
Requested deleted by the registrant: food manufacturing and processing establishments, all GREENHOUSE use (including CUCUMBER, LETTUCE, RADISH, TOMATO, etc.), RANGELAND GRASSES, TOBACCO, TOMATO (postharvest), and all aerial applications.
Nearly all remaining uses will be restricted use.
Additional information: Dennis Utterback
Growers are having difficulty properly disposing of pesticide containers, particularly Temik bags. You can no longer burn the bags, you can't bury them, and some local landfills will not accept them. There seem to be no legal options. I brought up this dilemma to the Georgia Pesticide Advisory Board.
The Board had already some action. John D. Taylor, Jr. (Land Prot. Branch, Dept. of Nat. Res.) wrote a letter, dated 6-5-95, to landfill owners and operators. He assured them that properly emptied/rinsed pesticide containers can be legally and safely placed in landfills. Landfill cooperation was encouraged to avoid illegal disposal.
If your county landfill will not accept properly emptied/rinsed containers, your county agent should contact:
John D. Taylor, Chief
Land Protection Branch
Environmental Protection Division
Georgia Dept. of Natural Resources
4244 International Parkway, Suite 104
Atlanta, GA 30354
Mr. Taylor said they would contact the landfill owner/operator directly to encourage the acceptance of empty pesticide containers.
Container recycling. The Georgia Department of Agriculture reports the largest two-month collection total ever in its container recycling program. The state total was more than 82,000 lbs in 1995. GOOD JOB, GDA!
Georgia Clean Day will be February 20, 1996 in Berrien, Brooks, Colquitt, Cook, and Lowndes counties. The Department plans to dispose of nearly 9 tons of suspended and canceled pesticides free of charge.
Growers have been reluctant to participate because they are afraid of prosecution. That is a BIG mistake. 1) It is not illegal to posses canceled pesticides. 2) The Dept. of Ag. does not know the names of participants. 3) If the pesticide leaks out of containers, you will be responsible for clean up costs, which can be enormous.
The White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) will review the proposal on state management plans concerning groundwater and a final rule on reporting adverse health effects of pesticides.
The EPA registered 40 new active ingredients in fiscal 1995; about half of them are safer, reduced risk pesticides. About 40 reregistration decisions were made.
Pesticide registrants submitted their top 5 priority actions to EPA by Dec. 1, 1995, including registration of new chemicals, new uses, or experimental use permits. These will be combined with EPA priorities to schedule regulatory actions for the next six months.
FMC Corporation plans to provide a strategy to reduce risks from Furadan 4F. Key proposed actions include closed systems, fewer 24C labels, and label changes to address drift and endangered species concerns.
Many people cheered the news of EPA budget cuts. However, longer delays in the registration of new materials or reregistration decisions will hurt agriculture.
EPA is preparing to release a policy statement that will establish acceptable non-dietary risk as 10-4. The threshold for dietary cancer risks is10-6. Generally, EPA will not allow risks to exceed these thresholds unless the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. Additionally:
1) Risks of greater than 10-4 will prevent new registrations or trigger regulatory action for registered materials. 2) For risks between 10-4 and 10-6, EPA will try to reduce risks during registration, reregistration, or other regulatory processes. 3) If risks are below 10-6, EPA will not ask for additional risk reduction unless it is cost-effective.
EPA is considering fees for pesticide regulatory actions, including registrations, experimental use permits, and emergency exemptions. Fees up to $10,000 would guarantee timely decisions but not particular actions. Stay tuned. There could be far-reaching implications for pest management.
The House and Senate approved an amendment that would have restructured the Delaney clause. President Clinton vetoed the bill to which the amendment was attached, but the House/Senate agreement is a good sign. The amendment could be attached to another bill.
The amendment, offered by Robert Walker (R- Pa.), would prevent any federal agency from rejecting a product that posed negligible risks to human health. Walker's plan was praised by agricultural and business groups, but some consumer groups express concern that Walker's amendment will increase the risk of cancer.
The Walker amendment would also require more stringent rules for agencies to adopt new regulations, including pesticide and food safety regulations. The plan would require agencies to review alternatives to regulation, to estimate the new rule's cost in implementation and enforcement, and to choose the least expensive option in most cases. Additionally, Congress would be able to block new regulations within 60 days of passage, and affected parties could seek judicial review of the new regulation.
Some Texas growers claim that EPA's slow approval of an emergency exemption for Pirate may have cost them hundreds of millions of dollars. EPA denies the charges, saying they responded within 48 hours to four different beet armyworm emergencies from Texas.
Texas agriculture officials and the state's IPM coordinator agree that EPA responded in a timely manner. Delays were caused by a shortage of Pirate and the lack of ready information concerning beet armyworm in Texas.
Because Georgia received an emergency exemption for Pirate last season, it should be easier for Georgia growers to get Pirate when they need it. EPA seems to be sensitive to the need for a material to control beet armyworm, and they seem to realize that beet armyworm can cause tremendous damage in short time.
NAPIAP Biologic and Economic Assessment of Pesticide Use on Corn and Soybeans. Call 217-333-9648 or FAX 217-333-5299.
USDA-ERS Pesticide and Fertilizer Use and Trends in U.S. Agriculture. Call 1-800-999-6779.
Georgia greens growers received an exemption to use metalaxyl (Ridomil Copper 70W) on collards, mustard greens, and turnips for downy mildew. Multiple air or ground applications may be applied at 1.5 to 2.5 lbs/acre. Allow a 14 day interval between applications and a 7 day phi. The exemption expires June 30, 1996.
IN CASE YOU MISSED IT
USDA record keeping changes went into effect May 11, 1995. You have 14 days (down from 30) to record information about restricted-use pesticide applications. There are also changes for recording spot applications releasing the information. There were boxes of outdated 1993 pamphlets in my office; you may be following the old rules as well. Contact your county agent for current information; violations could result in fines of up to $1000.
The Georgia Department of Agriculture reports that they issued 22 consent orders in fiscal year 1995, which resulted in fines from $100 for applications made without a Contractor License to $1000 for mix/load violations and other serious infractions. Ten of the orders were for aerial drift complaints. Approximately 80 warning letters and 39 advisory letters were issued.
Be aware: the Inspection Report includes a section on compliance with the Worker Protection Standard. WPS violations have been observed at nearly every inspection, but no fines have been issued for WPS violations.
Tralomethrin: food and feed additive tolerance established.
Cellulose acetate: tolerance exempted when used as an inert for application to growing crops.
Clomazone: tolerance established for cabbage, cucumber, and summer squash.
Pyrithiobac sodium salt: temporary tolerance on cottonseed until Sept. 30, 1997.
Carbofuran: tolerance on canola extended to Feb. 22, 1998.
New active ingredient products.
Checkmate PTB Technical Pheromone for use in manufacturing/formulating.
Checkmate PTB Dispenser for control of peach twig borer.
Neem oil TGAI for manufacturing.
NeemGuard for use on nonfood/nonfeed crops in and around commercial nurseries and residential structures.
Fortress Technical, Fortress 5G, and containing chlorethoxyfos received conditional registration to control rootworms, wireworms, cutworms, wireworms, seedcorn maggots, white grubs, and symphylans.
A new blueberry variety from USDA-ARS, Chandler, should be very good for pick-your-own operations and home gardens. This highbush variety grows about five feet tall, with high yields of very large blueberries that ripen slowly and later in the season. The berries can be picked for several weeks. Chandler could be available at retail nurseries by 1997 (USDA Agricultural Research, Sept. 1995)
A new bacterial product discovered in the soil of an ancient Caribbean rum distillery cannot be classified in the current system. DowElanco reports spinosad combines the knock-down power of an insecticide with minimal effects on nontarget species. The company hopes for 1997 registration.
A new virus has been discovered by USDA-ARS that prevents corn earworm from mating. Releasing infected moths could cause 70-80% sterilization of the offspring. Offspring that do reproduce would pass the virus to their progeny.
The appearance of any trade name in this newsletter is not intended to endorse that product nor convey negative implications of unmentioned products.
The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter is a monthly journal for Extension agents, Extension specialists, and others interested in pest management news. It provides information on legislation, regulations, and other issues affecting pest management in Georgia.
Do not regard the information in this newsletter as pest management recommendations. Consult the Georgia Pest Control Handbook, other Extension publications, or appropriate specialists for this information.
Your input in this newsletter is encouraged.
If you wish to be added to the mailing list, report errors, or present your viewpoints in the GPMN, contact us at 706-542-3687 or email@example.com
Paul Guillebeau, Assistant Professor & Extension Entomologist