The University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences/Cooperative Extension Service

The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter

Your source for pest management and pesticide news

July 1997/Volume 19, no. 5

FQPA
Commodity - Pesticide Tolerances and Their Uses at Risk of Being Lost
Because of FQPA, cotton growers in five states were denied an emergency exemption for the use of flowable carbofuran to control cotton aphid

HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT
In a recent European survey, at least 20% of the respondent ag workers said that they had been adversely affected by pesticides
Herbicides Linked to Infant Health Problems (not 'may be linked')
According to the UN Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO), pesticide equipment in developing countries is no better than it was 40 years ago
The Institute of Food Technology is concerned that the regulatory calendar for an endocrine screen is too ambitious

BIOTECHNOLOGY
B.t. corn was reported to have no effect on the development or abundance of three common predatory insects
The following pesticides will be cancelled voluntarily by the registrant unless the requests are withdrawn by Dec. 24, 1997

FROM THE COURTROOM
The maximum fines for violating environmental laws have increased
The EPA has put the clamps on the 'Joyce Chen Anti-Bacterial Cutting Surface' and the 'The Board of Health Anti-Bacterial Cutting Board'

FEDERAL NEWS
The EPA has three suggestions for changing consumer pesticide labeling
Under the Government Performance and Results Act, the EPA has set 13 goals that will drive many of their activities for the next 5-10 years

NEW TOOLS
Mini, remote-controlled helicopters are being tested as delivery systems for pesticides amid mixed reviews

FQPA

Are you one of those people who think that FQPA will not have much of any impact? Read on.

Under FQPA, the EPA is required to reviews all pesticide tolerances in ten years. The EPA will begin the review with the pesticides that they consider the most dangerous, organophosphates, carbamates, and B1/B2 carcinogens.

When additional pesticide restrictions are passed, minor crops typically receive the greatest impact because they represent a relatively small economic market for pesticides. Minor crops are defined as those crops grown on fewer than 300,000 acres.

Is that a problem? A few pesticides may be lost on crops that nobody eats anyway, so what. Unfortunately, nearly every U.S. crop is a minor crop, including all fruits and nearly every vegetable. Consider the following list of minor crops assembled by IR-4 that may lose pesticides in the FQPA review. You may see a few 'minor' crops that are staples on your table.

There is no need for you to read every crop in the list. I just wanted you to realize the length of the list and to realize that 'minor' crops are not 'unimportant.' Losing a few pesticides may not be important. The loss of many pesticides, however, on many different crops could be critical.

Commodity - Pesticide Tolerances and Their Uses at Risk of Being Lost

(Do not panic. All of these pesticides will not be lost, but we cannot predict which ones will be affected by FQPA.)



A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - IJK - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - UV - W - XYZ

A

Anise - See Celery

Apricot - Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Iprodione, Malathion, Methidathion, Oxydemeton-methyl, Phosmet, Thiophanate-methyl, Vinclozolin

Arugula - Bensulide, Dichloropropene, Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, Thiodicarb

Artichoke - Azinphos-methyl, Carbofuran, Methidathion, Parathion-methyl, Pronamide

Asparagus - Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Disulfoton, Fenamiphos, Fonofos, Malathion, Mancozeb, Methomyl

Atemoya - See Sugar Apple

Avocado - Benomyl, Folpet, Malathion, Methomyl

B

Banana - (tolerances established on banana apply to plantain) - Benomyl, Carbofuran, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Ethoprop, Fenamiphos, Fonofos, Mancozeb, Maneb, Oxamyl, Terbufos, Thiophanate-methyl

Bean (Lima) - Alachlor, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dimethoate, Disulfoton, Ethoprop, Fonofos, Naled, Oxydemeton-methyl

Beet (Garden) - Carbaryl, Dichloropropene, Diazinon, Fenamiphos, Fonofos, Malathion, Methomyl, Phenmedipham

Belgian Endive - Vinclozolin

Birdsfoot Trefoil - Azinphos-methyl, Carbaryl, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Parathion-methyl, Pronamide

Blackberry - (tolerances established on blackberry apply to all Rubus eubatus (includes bingleberry, boysenberry, dewberry, lowberry, marionberry, olallieberry, and youngberry)) - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Iprodione, Malathion, Metam, Parathion-methyl, Pronamide

Blueberry - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Iprodione, Malathion, Metam, Methomyl, Parathion-methyl, Phosmet, Pronamide

Broccoli - Azinphos-methyl, Bensulide, Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Disulfoton, Fonofos, Iprodione, Malathion, Maneb, Metam, Methamidophos, Methomyl, Naled, Oxydemeton-methyl, Parathion-methyl, Thiodicarb

Broccoli Raab - See Turnip

Brussels Sprout - Acephate, Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Bensulide, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Disulfoton, Fenamiphos, Fonofos, Malathion, Maneb, Methamidophos, Methomyl, Naled, Oxydemeton-methyl, Parathion-methyl

Buckwheat - Dichloropropene

C

Cabbage - Azinphos-methyl, Bensulide, Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Disulfoton, Ethoprop, Fenamiphos, Fonofos, Malathion, Maneb, Metam, Methamidophos, Methomyl, Naled, Oxydemeton-methyl, Parathion-methyl, Thiodicarb

Cacao - Chlorothalonil

Carambola - Methidathion

Carrot - Benomyl, Bensulide, Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Iprodione, Malathion, Mancozeb, Metam, Methomyl, Oxamyl, Parathion-methyl

Cassava - Mancozeb, Maneb

Cauliflower - Acephate, Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Bensulide, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Disulfoton, Fonofos, Malathion, Maneb, Methidathion, Methamidophos, Methomyl, Naled, Oxydemeton-methyl, Parathion-methyl

Celery - Acephate, Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Malathion, Mancozeb, Methamidophos, Methomyl, Naled, Oxamyl, Parathion-methyl, Thiodicarb, Thiophanate-methyl

Chayote - Malathion

Cherimoya - Chlorpyrifos

Cherry - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Fenamiphos, Iprodione, Malathion, Phosmet, Pronamide, Thiophanate-methyl, Vinclozolin

Chestnut - Benomyl, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Methidathion, Phosmet

Chinese Broccoli - See Broccoli

Chinese Cabbage - See Cabbage

Chinese Mustard - Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Iprodione, Malathion, Methomyl

Chinese Radish - Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Malathion, Methomyl

Citrus - (tolerances established on citrus apply to grapefruit, lemon, lime, mandarin, orange, tangelo, tangerine, citron, kumquat, and hybrids) - Aldicarb (Grapefruit/Lemon/Lime only), Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate (Grapefruit/Lemon only), Ethion, Fenamiphos (Grapefruit/Lemon/Lime only), Formetanate HCl (Grapefruit/Lemon/Lime only), Malathion, Methidathion, Methomyl (Lemon only), Naled (Grapefruit/Lemon only), Orthophenylphenol (PostHar), Oxamyl, Oxythioquinox (Lime only), Propargite (Grapefruit/Lemon only)

Coffee - Aldicarb, Chlorothalonil, Disulfoton

Collard - Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Malathion, Methomyl, Naled, Parathion-methyl

Crabapple - Azinphos-methyl, Carbaryl, Mancozeb, Phosmet

Crambe - See rapeseed

Cranberry - Acephate, Azinphos-methyl, Carbaryl, Carbofuran, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Mancozeb, Maneb, Metam, Parathion-methyl

Cucumber - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Bensulide, Carbaryl, Carbofuran, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Ethoprop, Malathion, Mancozeb, Maneb, Metam, Methamidophos, Methomyl, Oxamyl, Oxydemeton-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl

Currant - Benomyl, Dichloropropene, Iprodione, Malathion, Metam Parathion-methyl

Custard Apple - See Sugar Apple

D

Dandelion - Benomyl, Benslide, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Methomyl, Thiodicarb

Date - Dichloropropene, Malathion

Dill - Carbaryl

E

Eggplant - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Benslide, Captan, Carbaryl, Dichloropropene, Fenamiphos, Malathion, Maneb, Metam, Methamidophos, Methomyl, Naled, Oxamyl, Oxydemeton-methyl

Endive (Escrole) - Bensulide, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Malathion, Maneb, Methomyl, Parathion-methyl, Pronamide, Thiodicarb

F

Feijoa - Chlorpyrifos

Fennel - Mancozeb

Fig - Benomyl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Malathion

Fig (Kadota) - Maneb

Filbert - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Methidathion, Oxydemeton-methyl, Parathion-methyl, Phosmet

Flax - Captan, Carbaryl, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Mancozeb

Florence Fennel - See Celery

G

Garlic - See Onion

Ginger - Oxamyl

Ginseng - Diazinon, Iprodione

Gooseberry - Azinphos-methyl, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Metam

Grapefruit - See Citrus

Grass - Bensulide (Bent only), Dichloropropene, Malathion, Methidathion (Timothy only), Methomyl, Naled, Parathion-methyl

Guava - Malathion

H

Herb/spices - Metam

Hops - Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Disulfoton, Malathion, Naled, Parathion-methyl, Phorate, Propargite

Horseradish - Carbaryl, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Methomyl

Huckleberry - Dichloropropene, Metam

K

Kale - Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Malathion, Maneb, Methomyl, Naled, Parathion-methyl

Kiwifruit - Azinphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Fenamiphos, Iprodione, Methidathion, Phosmet, Vinclozolin

Kohlrabi - Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Dichloropropene, Malathion Maneb

L

Leeks - Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Methomyl

Lemon - See Citrus

Lentils - Carbaryl, Dimethoate, Disulfoton, Malathion, Metam, Methomyl, Parathion-methyl

Lespedeza - Dichloropropene, Malathion

Lettuce - Acephate (Head only), Bensulide, Carbaryl, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Disulfoton, Iprodione, Malathion, Maneb, Metam, Methamidophos, Methomyl, Oxydemeton-methyl (Head only), Parathion-methyl, Pronamide, Thiodicarb, Vinclozolin (Head only)

Lime - See Citrus

Loganberry - See Blackberry

Longan - Methidathion

Loquat - Carbaryl, Methomyl

Lupine - Chlorpyrifos, Dimethoate, Malathion

M

Macadamia - Acephate, Benomyl, Chlorpyrifos, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Methidathion, Phosmet

Mango - Benomyl, Malathion, Methidathion

Melon - (tolerances established on muskmelon apply to cantaloupe, casaba, Santa Claus melon, crenshaw melon, honeydew, Persian melon, golden pershaw melon, mango melon, pineapple melon and snake melon) - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Bensulide, Carbaryl, Carbofuran, Chlorothalonil, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Malathion, Mancozeb, Maneb, Metam, Methamidophos, Methomyl, Naled, Oxamyl, Oxydemeton-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl

Millet - Carbaryl, Dichloropropene

Mint - (includes both peppermint and spearmint) - Acephate, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Dichloropropene, Fonofos, Malathion, Metam, Methomyl, Oxamyl, Oxydemeton-methyl, Propargite

Mushrooms - Benomyl, Chlorothalonil, Diazinon, Ethoprop, Malathion

Mustard Greens - Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Malathion, Metam, Methomyl, Parathion-methyl

N

Nectarines - See Peaches

O

Okra - Carbaryl, Dichloropropene, Ethoprop, Fenamiphos, Malathion

Olive - Carbaryl, Dichloropropene, Methidathion

Onion - (unless noted, tolerance includes both dry bulb and green onion) Azinphos-methyl, Bensulide (Dry Bulb only), Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos (Dry Bulb only), Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Fonofos (Dry Bulb only), Iprodione (Dry Bulb only), Malathion, Maneb, Mancozeb (Dry Bulb only), Metam, Methomyl, Oxamyl (Dry Bulb only), Oxydemeton-methyl (DryBulb only), Parathion-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl, Vinclozolin (Dry Bulb only)

Oriental Pear - Carbaryl

P

Papaya - Benomyl, Chlorothalonil, Malathion, Mancozeb, Maneb, Metam

Parsley - Azinphos-methyl, Bensulide, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Methomyl, Thiodicarb

Parsnip - Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Parathion-methyl

Passion Fruit - Chlorothalonil, Malathion

Pea - Azinphos-methyl (Blackeye only), Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil (Blackeye only), Chlorpyrifos, Dichloropropene, Diazinon (Succulent only), Dimethoate, Disulfoton, Malathion, Metam, Methomyl, Naled (Succulent only), Parathion-methyl, Phosmet, Pronamide (Austria Winter only)

Peach - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Fenamiphos, Formetanate HCl, Iprodione, Malathion, Methidathion, Methomyl, Naled, Parathion-methyl, Phosmet, Pronamide, Thiophanate-methyl, Vinclozolin

Pear - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Carbaryl, Captan, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Formetanate HCl, Malathion, Mancozeb, Methidathion, Methomyl, Orthophenylphonol (PostHar), Oxamyl, Phosmet, Pronamide

Pepper - Acephate (Bell & Non-bell), Bensulide (Bell& Chili only), Captan, Carbaryl, Carbofuran, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Disulfoton, Fenamiphos (Non-bell only), Fonofos, Malathion, Maneb, Metam, Methamidophos, Methomyl, Naled, Oxamyl, Oxydemeton-methyl, Parathion-methyl, Vinclozolin (Bell only)

Persimmon - Dichloropropene

Pimento - See Pepper

Pineapple - Benomyl, Carbaryl, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Ethoprop, Fenamiphos, Malathion, Oxamyl, Parathion-methyl

Pistachio - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Carbaryl, Phosmet

Plantain - See Banana

Plum - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Formetanate HCl, Iprodione, Methidathion, Phosmet, Pronamide, Thiophanate-methyl, Vinclozolin

Pomegranate - Dichloropropene, Methomyl

Prickly Pear - Carbaryl

Pumpkin - Benomyl, Bensulide, Carbaryl, Carbofuran, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Maneb, Naled, Oxamyl, Oxydemeton-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl

Q

Quince - Azinphos-methyl, Carbaryl, Dichloropropene, Malathion Mancozeb, Parathion-methyl

R

Radicchio - Bensulide, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Pronamide, Thiodicarb

Radish - Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Fonofos, Malathion, Metam

Rapeseed - Parathion-ethyl, Parathion-methyl

Raspberry - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Fenamiphos, Iprodione, Malathion, Metam, Parathion-methyl, Pronamide, Vinclozolin

Rhubarb - Bensulide, Dichloropropene, Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, Pronamide, Thiodicarb

Rutabaga - Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Malathion

S

Safflower - Carboxin, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Methidathion, Naled

Sainfoin - Pronamide

Salsify - Carbaryl, Dichloropropene, Malathion

Sapote - Chlorpyrifos

Shallot - Chlorothalonil, Dichloropropene, Malathion

Spinach - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Bensulide, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Malathion, Metam, Methomyl, Naled, Parathion-methyl, Phenmedipham, Thiodicarb

Squash (Summer & Winter) - Benomyl, Bensulide, Carbaryl, Carbofuran, Chlorothalonil, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Mancozeb (Summer Squash only), Maneb, Metam, Methomyl, Naled, Oxamyl, Oxydemeton-methyl, Parathion-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl

Strawberry - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Carbofuran, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Fenamiphos, Fonofos, Iprodione, Malathion, Metam, Methomyl, Naled, Thiophanate-methyl, Vinclozolin

Sugar Apple - Methidathion

Sweet Potato - Aldicarb, Benomyl, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Ethoprop, Malathion, Oxamyl, Phosmet

Sweetsop - See Sugar Apple

Swiss Chard - Bensulide, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Malathion, Methomyl, Naled, Parathion-methyl, Thiodicarb

T

Tangelo/Tangors - See Tangerine

Tangerine - Dimethoate, Fenamiphos, Formetanate HCl, Iprodione, Methomyl, Naled

Taro - Captan

Tree Nuts - (tolerance includes almond, beech nut, Brazil nut, butternut, cashew, chestnut, chinuapin, filbert, hickory nut, macadamia nut, pecan, and walnut) - Benomyl, Chlorpyrifos, Dichloropropene, Methidathion, Phosmet

Turnip (Roots & Tops) - Benomyl, Captan, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Malathion, Methomyl, Metam, Naled, Parathion-methyl

V

Vetch - Dichloropropene, Malathion, Parathion-methyl, Pronamide

W

Walnut - Azinphos-methyl, Benomyl, Carbaryl, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Malathion, Methidathion, Naled, Oxydemeton-methyl, Parathion-methyl, Phosmet, Propargite

Watercress - Diazinon, Malathion

Watermelon - Azinphos-methyl, Bensulide, Captan, Carbaryl, Carbofuran, Chlorothalonil, Diazinon, Dichloropropene, Dimethoate, Malathion, Mancozeb, Maneb, Naled, Oxamyl, Oxydemeton-methyl

Wild Rice - Malathion

XYZ

Yam - See Sweet Potato

Youngberry - See Blackberry

(The Reregistration Notification Network, 7-15-97)

Because of FQPA, cotton growers in five states were denied an emergency exemption for the use of flowable carbofuran to control cotton aphid. Before FQPA was passed, similar exemptions were granted in 1995 and 1996. Analysis required by FQPA identified carbofuran as a dietary risk to children and could not exceed 5 ppb in drinking water. Some water monitoring data have discovered carbofuran levels of up to 40 ppb. As a result, no carbofuran tolerance or exemption could be granted for cotton growers.

The EPA also indicates that additional restrictions for carbofuran could be on the way. Currently, up to 2.5 million lbs of liquid carbofuran is applied to registered crops alfalfa, corn, rice, soybeans, potatoes, small grains and some minor crops. An additional 250,000 lbs of granular carbofuran are used on rice. This requested exemption would have added up to 500,000 lbs on up to one million acres of cotton. (PANUPS, 7-18-97)

Health and the Environment

In a recent European survey, at least 20% of the respondent ag. workers said that they had been adversely affected by pesticides, with about 75% of the incidents occurring during mix/load/application. The remaining poisonings occurred during re-entry or handling contaminated equipment. The most common reported symptoms were head-ache, skin irritation, or stomach pain. (Pesticide News 36, June 1997 in PANUPS 7-14-97).

Consider the following well-meaning discourse concerning pesticides and human health. The italicized section is a direct quote. The plain text is my words.

Herbicides Linked to Infant Health Problems (not 'may be linked')

The herbicides atrazine, cyanazine and metolachlor may be linked to a range of adverse health effects, including respiratory distress, cerebral palsy and impaired development. According to a recent study of drinking water contamination in Iowa, these three herbicides were each

associated with higher community levels of intrauterine growth retardation (slow fetal growth resulting in low birth weight) among newborns. The researchers said that slow fetal growth is a predictor of increased infant mortality and is the second leading known cause of fetal death. (Pretty scary? Especially combined with the title)

The researchers pointed out that this study is based on data at the community level rather than on data collected from individuals, and stressed that their findings should be considered preliminary until more detailed epidemiological studies on individual exposure levels are carried out. (this paragraph responsibly indicates that the researchers do not know. However, do you think many people understand this section?)

I included this article to point out how easily that people are mislead about threats from pesticides and other things they do not understand well. I do not think that the author or the researchers are trying to be evasive or misleading. If you are a reporter, you put the news first. The initial paragraph is news; the second is not even interesting to most people.

Many people, however, do not understand (or even read) the statistical disclaimers associated with these type of reports. They would accept the first paragraph as proof that triazines are killing babies. Irresponsible consumer groups would report only the first paragraph.

Be alert when you are reading. The situation is typically neither as good nor as bad as it appears in the press (except for this newsletter). (PANUPS, 7-14-97)

According to the UN Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO), pesticide equipment in developing countries is no better than it was 40 years ago. Consequently, many of these countries have excessive and unnecessary risks associated with pesticides. In Pakistan, about 50% of applied pesticides are reportedly wasted due to poor machinery and application methods. Pesticide residues on food in India exceed the world average. A lack of proper application training is common in many developing countries.

Additionally, many growers in developing countries still abide by outdated pest management principles that are based on high volumes and rates of pesticides, which results in regular contamination of surface and ground water. Flowers in Columbia and orchards in Brazil are typically sprayed with up to 6,000 and 10,000 liters/hectare, respectively. The FAO reports that 10% of this spray volume with the proper equipment could provide adequate pest control while greatly reducing run-off.

The FAO is calling for improved equipment and better training. (PANUPS, 7-27-97)

The Institute of Food Technology is concerned that the regulatory calendar for an endocrine screen is too ambitious. Under FQPA, the EPA is required to develop a valid screen by next year and implement the plan in 1999. The IFT fears that we will not have the necessary understanding to establish a scientifically rigorous screen. However, FQPA requires that EPA establish a screen anyway. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem. News, 6-25-97)

Biotechnology

B.t. corn was reported to have no effect on the development or abundance of three common predatory insects (twelve-spotted lady beetle, the insidious flower beetle, and the green lacewing). Laboratory colonies fed on pollen from B.t. corn developed and survived normally. Populations in field plots were the same for both B.t. corn and conventional corn hybrids. (Pilcher et al. Envir. Entomol., 26: 1997).

The following pesticides will be cancelled voluntarily by the registrant unless the requests are withdrawn by Dec. 24, 1997. The registrants may continue to sell the product for one year; product in the hands of end-users may be used according to the label until supplies are exhausted.

Zep-O-Mint Expedite Broadleaf Herbicide2-Way Ester
Chloropropham Technical Riverside Mal-Methyl 44E
Troysan 190 Riverside Mal-Methyl 63 ULV
Helena 3 lb Methyl Parathion EC Riverside Methyl Parathion 7.2
7.5 Methyl Parathion Dithon 63
Methyl Parathion 4EC Clean Crop Methyl Parathion 7.5
Methyl Parathion 1.5 Thiodan 3EC Metaspray 5E
Trinox 80% Soluble Powder Selective Insecticide Methyl Parathion 6EC
Oxy Methyl Parathion-Thiosulfan 1.5-1.5EC Technical Methyl Parathion
Dichloroprop Technical (2,4 DP) Dibrom Fly & Mosquito Spray
Mitac WP Treflan 5
Poly-Coat Beef & Dairy Cattle Duster, contains Co-Ral Pin Nip 7A-Aerosol Sprout Inhibitor
Methyl Parathion 4EC Riverdale MCPA Technical Amine
Methyl Parathion Liquid 4 Prod #909 Riverdale MCPA Technical Ioe
Methyl Parathion 4 Riverdale MCPA Technical Acid




Did you notice how many methyl parathion products are being pulled off the market? It don't think we need Sherlock Holmes to tell us why. By the way, I would not advise stockpiling methyl parathion. In the event that the tolerances are ever cancelled, you may wind up holding the bag (or the jug). (FR Notice)

Methamidophos is being voluntarily canceled on all crops except cotton and potato; all 24(c) labels are also canceled except for tomato. The EPA met with the registrants (Bayer Corp. and Valent USA) because the risk to agricultural workers exceeded the Agency level of concern. The registrants have also proposed revising label language, phasing in closed mixing/loading systems, and conducting an educational program. (FR 7-2-97)

From the Courtroom

In case you had not heard, the maximum fines for violating environmental laws have increased. For commercial applicators, general maximum penalties under FIFRA increased from $500 to $5500; for private applicators $550 maximum (up from $50) for first violation.

The EPA has put the clamps on the 'Joyce Chen Anti-Bacterial Cutting Surface' and the 'The Board of Health Anti-Bacterial Cutting Board.' The cutting boards are considered pesticides because the labels indicate the boards prevent the growth of Salmonella and E. coli. In order to make these claims, the company would have to submit data proving that the products are effective against bacteria that cause human disease. The company has agreed to stop marketing the products with these claims. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem News, 7-2-97)

Reuben Brown of Chicago may face two years in prison and a $200,000 fine, in addition to restitution to homeowners whose homes he sprayed with methyl parathion. The U.S. Attorney's office has charged Mr. Brown with illegally treating 466 structures, including many multi-family units. Two other applicators in Mississippi have also been sentenced to 6 1/2 and 5 years in prison for applying methyl parathion in homes. Nearly two dozen other applicators are reported to be under investigation. (Pesticid. & Tox. Chem. News, 7-9-97)

Federal News

Reregistration eligibility documents (REDs) have been issued for pendimethalin and Colletotrichum gloesporioides f.sp. aeschynomene (a mycoherbicide) (EPA, May-June 1997)

The EPA has three suggestions for changing consumer pesticide labeling. The changes have not been finalized, and they would likely be on a voluntary basis. 1) All companies are urged to include an informational telephone number and/or internet address on each product. Smaller companies may use the number of the National Pesticide Telecommunications Network. 2) The EPA wants pesticides to use a common name for the ingredients instead of the chemical name. Some states are against this idea because they fear it will confuse field inspectors and laboratory personnel; these states want the chemical and the common name. 3) Finally, the Agency wants to change 'inert ingredients' to 'other ingredients' because people may equate 'inert' with 'not dangerous to humans'. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem. News, 7-2-97)

Under the Government Performance and Results Act, the EPA has set 13 goals that will drive many of their activities for the next 5-10 years.

New Tools

The Georgia Department of Agriculture has issued a Special Local Need Label for Georgia producers to use Pinpoint 15 Granular to control mole crickets and cutworms on turf.

A USDA Agronomist (Bill Donald) is taking the string weed-trimmer out of the yard an into the field. Herbicide applications can be reduced by 60% in corn and soybeans by controlling weeds in the row with a narrow band of herbicide; weeds in between the rows are controlled with a string trimmer. In a four year study, yields in the band/trimmer combination were comparable to yields in conventionally managed fields. Additionally, the weed stubble holds the soil in place. Donald is developing a four-row trimmer. If you want more information, contact Bill Donald at william_donald@muccmail.missouri.edu or 573-882-6404.

Mini, remote-controlled helicopters are being tested as delivery systems for pesticides amid mixed reviews. With a ten foot rotor and a twelve foot long body; they weigh less than 100 lbs when empty. Designed to hover about ten feet off the ground, the helicopters can deliver up to eight liters of pesticide per minute in areas that conventional aircraft cannot reach.

The company is promoting the helicopters as a way to precisely apply pesticides or biocontrol agents in areas where conventional aircraft are impractical. They advise that the mini-copters could be useful for treating field margins near sensitive areas or treating small areas of a field. There have been about 1000 helicopters built to date, with testing in California, Arizona, Florida, and other states.

However, the new technology also has critics. Aerial applicators worry that there will be additional pressure to apply pesticides illegally or in areas where applications are too dangerous. Additionally, there is concern about the possibility that cellular phones or other electronic transmissions will interfere with control of the remote control helicopters.

The appearance of any trade name in this newsletter is not intended to endorse that product nor convey negative implications of unmentioned products.




The University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State College, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and counties of the state cooperating. The Cooperative Extension Service offers educational programs, assistance and materials to all people without regard to race, color, national origin, age, sex or disability.

An Equal Opportunity Employer/Affirmative Action Organization Committed to a Diverse Work Force

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 18 and June 30, 1914, The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating.

Gale A. Buchanan, Dean and Director


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