March 22, 1996 Volume 18, no. 2
Updating our mailing list
THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT
Gene for herbicide resistance was transferred to the weed
Genetically engineered corn line resistant to the herbicide glufosinate
Cotton line engineered for tolerance to sulfonylurea herbicides
YOUR HEALTH, NEWS TO LIVE BY
Exposure to pesticides may inhibit your immune system FEDERAL NEWS
Special Review of cyanazine (Bladex, Cynex) has been terminated by EPA
The EPA has decided not to initiate a Special Review of propoxur
NEW TOOLS, NEWS YOU CAN USE
31 substances will no longer be regulated as pesticides
EMERGENCY EXEMPTIONS (SECTION 18)
GEORGIA CLEAN DAY
DEODORANT RULED TO BE PESTICIDE
Chemicals are present in the human diet at levels so low that they are unlikely to pose an appreciable cancer risk
Sales of organic food products rose to $2.3 billion in 1994
PLOWING THE INTERNET
National Pest Management Materials Database
Citizen's Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety
Biological control on the internet
Vapam (metam-sodium) became a restricted-use chemical
More than 240,000 fish killed in Alabama by pesticide run-off
SHELF LIFE OF PESTICIDES
We are updating our mailing list. Please let us know if your address has changed or if you want to be added (or deleted) from the mailing list.
We will soon start work on the 1997 Georgia Pesticide Handbook. This will be my first year as editor, and I want it to be more informative and easier to use than ever before. We are looking for suggestions to improve the Handbook. If you have
any ideas, please call, write, FAX, or e-mail us.
Mail: 317 Hoke Smith Bldg.
Univ. of Ga.
Athens, GA 30602
Be sure to check the last two pages for this month's freebie, a table of shelf life for a variety of pesticides. I know I promised to send you a list of products with 4 hr. REI for WPS, but I think this information will be more useful. I will include the 4 hr. REI's next time. This newsletter was long enough.
THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT
The endangered species act expired in 1992. It is expected to undergo substantial changes when it is reauthorized this year. Undoubtedly, agriculture will be affected. We need to do a bit of soul-searching to decide what we really want and need.
The gut instinct of most landowners is that government has no right to tell them what they can and cannot do with their land, even if an extremely rare species of snail is discovered there. Many people who do not own land feel just the opposite; every species has a right to life, and farmers will just have to sacrifice.
My family still owns a farm, and I feel very protective and selfish of that land. 'Just keep your feet off my property and your nose out of my business.' However, as a scientist and concerned citizen, I understand the critical need to preserve species and the diversity of life. Every species does have the right to life, but people must have a place to live and food to eat.
The solution to this problem is not apparent, and an increasing number of people demanding space and resources will exacerbate the problem. The conflict between endangered species and agriculture/industry has only just begun. Consider this dilemma carefully before the press and public opinion turn it into a battle of emotions. Then let your congressman know what you think.
The March 7 issue of Nature should give us all something to think about.
A gene that conferred resistance to the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (Finale, Liberty, Rely) was placed in oilseed rape. Then the rape was grown in the same field with a closely related weed. The rape and the weed hybridized, and the gene for herbicide resistance was transferred to the weed. The hybrid weed produced viable seeds that grew into plants with herbicide resistance. Additionally, the herbicide-resistant hybrids were also present the next spring after the experiment was conducted. Biotechnology represents a bright and exciting future, but there is potential for very serious mistakes.
APHIS has announced that two genetically engineered crop plants will no longer be regulated under APHIS regulations. is no longer a regulated article under APHIS. 'Event MS3' (a new genetically engineered corn line) has been engineered for male sterility and resistance to the herbicide glufosinate (Finale, Liberty, Rely) as a marker. Cotton line 19-51a was engineered by DuPont for tolerance to sulfonylurea herbicides. A genetically engineered organism is no longer regulated by APHIS when they are convinced that the organism has no harmful effects on plants, nontarget organisms, or the environment. For general information contact Biotechnology Permits, BBEP, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale MD 20737-1237 (301-734-7612).
The USDA may have discovered a way to boost a plant's natural defenses. Drs. Ann Smigocki and John Neal of USDA modified a gene for a plant hormone, cytokinin. Plants with this gene produce large amounts of cytokinin, which is believed to stimulate the natural defenses of plants. Tomato hornworm and aphids that fed on these plants were adversely affected. Unlike many other biotechnology tools, the hormone is only produced when the plant is wounded.
Don't get too excited over a quick fix, however. According to Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News (Feb 21), the director of EPA's Registration Division said he did not expect the Delaney clause to be fixed this year.
The EPA is proposing to revoke the 408 (tolerance for raw commodity) and 409 (processed food, Delaney) tolerances for the following commodities.
dicofol on apples, grapes, and plums;
mancozeb on oats and wheat;
propargite on apples and figs;
simazine on wheat; and
triademefon on wheat.
Comments must be made before May 30. If the 408 and 409 tolerances are revoked, these chemicals cannot be used on these crops.
On the brighter side, EPA concluded that the 409 tolerances were not necessary on 31 crops, so the tolerance for the processed food (409) could be canceled without canceling the 408 tolerance. All that mumbo-jumbo means that you can still use the pesticides on these crops in the field.
The 408 tolerances will be retained on these pesticide/crop combinations.
benomyl/citrus and rice
captan/grape and tomato
ethylene oxide/whole spices
iprodione/peanut and rice
The EPA also proposes to retain these combinations, although the decision will not be final until after the 90 day comment period.
mancozeb/barley, grape, and rye
oxyfluorfen/cottonseed, peppermint, spearmint, and soybean
propargite/grape and plum
thiodicarb/cottonseed and soybean
triadimefon/grape and pineapple
Address comments to Public Response Section, FOD, OPP, U.S. EPA, 401 M St. SW, Washington DC 20460
The EPA has also committed to make 40 additional decisions on Delaney cancellations by April 1997.
YOUR HEALTH, NEWS TO LIVE BY
The World Resources Institute reports that exposure to pesticides may inhibit your immune system. The report's findings are not based on a single test; conclusions are drawn from human epidemiological studies and animal experiments. The findings of this study are not considered to be definitive, but they could be cause for concern.
Many pesticides have not been tested extensively for suppression of the immune system although current testing does consider these effects in a preliminary manner. The EPA will soon finalize data requirements that will investigate pesticide effects on the immune system more closely.
The problem is considered to be particularly important in developing countries where there is a combination of widespread pesticide exposure, inadequate pesticide safety precautions, and prevalent communicable diseases.
Our advice to you is simple. Every possible effect of pesticide exposure is not known. Limit your exposure. Wear your protective clothing.
First the good news, the Special Review of cyanazine (Bladex, Cynex) has been terminated by EPA. Now the bad news, the Special Review ended because DuPont and EPA agreed to phase out cyanazine in seven years. More good news, the other registrant (Griffin Corporation) intends to keep cyanazine on the market if possible; EPA says that Griffin is bound by the agreement with DuPont. It is still unclear what will ultimately happen.
Meanwhile, atrazine and simazine remain in Special Review. Proposed actions from EPA are not expected before 1997.
The EPA has decided not to initiate a Special Review of propoxur (Baygon, Sendran). It is commonly used to control insects on pets and inside/outside of buildings. A Special Review had been considered because of the potential carcinogenicity of the compound. Estimated exposure had been reduced after further review, and some the sites of greatest concern had been voluntarily canceled.
The third National IPM Symposium/Workshop was held in Washington at the end of February. They seem to be willing to put their money where their mouth is. The upper management of USDA and the President indicate support for increasing IPM funding.
NEW TOOLS, NEWS YOU CAN USE
Organic farmers and gardeners will have easier access to some pest control products. The EPA has decided that 31 substances will no longer be regulated as pesticides.
Exempted compounds include:
corn gluten meal
putrescent whole egg solids
sodium lauryl sulfate
zinc metal strips
I would bet that most readers did not even realize these things were pesticides. You can relax, however, your wife has not been hiding poison on the spice rack unless she tells you that cyanide just provides an 'almond taste'. Under the old regulations, any product that was sold with pesticide claims was regulated under FIFRA just like conventional pesticides.
To protect an unsuspecting public from charlatans, these products will not be completely unregulated. The labels must list all active and inert ingredients, and they cannot claim to control bacteria or viruses that threaten human health. Additionally, exempted products are not allowed to imply they control diseases carried by insects or rodents, such as 'controls ticks that may carry Lyme disease'.
There is a story behind this announcement. When I worked for EPA, I was part of a team that was supposed to reregister garlic. There was only one company that sold 100-200 lbs per year to organic gardeners. You might have thought that the team could simply rubber-stamp garlic as safe.
However, a team of scientists and regulators met at least three times to argue whether the company should be required to submit additional risk data. Finally, EPA management realized that the reregistration process could not be stalled for several months on every product like garlic.
So, no more running down to the chemical dealer for some Lorsban when the corn is getting eaten up. Just ask your wife to send out the rosemary or thyme when she finishes making dinner. After all, I have never seen a major infestation of a pizza or a plate of fried chicken.
EMERGENCY EXEMPTIONS (SECTION 18)
Three emergency exemptions have been granted to Georgia growers. Norflurazon (Zorial Rapid 80) can be used to control grassy weeds in Bermudagrass. A single application may be made by ground (0.5 - 1.5 lbs a.i./A); no more than 90,000 acres may be treated in Georgia.
Metalaxyl can be applied to mustard greens/turnip/collards under Section 18 to control downy mildew.
Pirate can be applied to cotton under Section 18 to control tobacco budworm. Do not graze or feed treated foliage within 60 days of application.
Temporary tolerances have been established by EPA for the following chemical/crop combinations.
Imidacloprid (Admire, Provado) on cucurbits (only for indirect or inadvertent residues from rotational practices). Expires Dec 31, 1996.
Cyfluthrin (Baythroid) on alfalfa, sunflower, and the fat of cattle, goat, horse, hog, and sheep (expires Nov. 15, 1997) and on sweet corn (expires July 5, 1999)
The following permanent tolerances have been established by EPA.
Sethoxydim (Poast) on corn (field grain, fodder, and forage).
Glyphosate (Roundup) on cotton gin by-products.
Nicosulfuran (Accent) on sweet corn, sweet corn forage, and sweet corn fodder.
Imidacloprid (Admire, Provado) on cottonseed and cotton gin by-products. The feed additive tolerance for cottonmeal was revoked.
Dimethenamid (Frontier) on dry bean, peanut hay, peanut, sorghum grain fodder, sorghum grain forage, sorghum grain, sweetcorn (corn, fodder, and forage).
Chlorothalonil (Bravo) on blueberry, filbert, and mushroom
Pronamide (Kerb) on apple, artichoke, blackberry, blueberry, boysenberry, cattle, egg, endive, goat, grape, hog, horse, lettuce, mile, nongrass animal feed, pear, poultry, radicchio, raspberry, sheep, stone fruit.
Sulfonium (Touchdown) on almond hull, banana, citrus, tree nut, cattle, corn (fodder, forage, and grain), egg, goat, hog, horse, milk, poultry, and sheep.
Ethanediamine, exempt from tolerance when used as a surfactant or dispersing agent applied to growing commodities or raw agric. commodities.
Hexythiazox (Savey) on apple.
Avermectin B1 (Agrimek) on cucurbits
GEORGIA CLEAN DAY
The Georgia Clean Day Program collected approx. 8,200 lbs of waste pesticides from 24 farms in Berrien, Brooks, Colquitt, Cook, and Lowndes counties. A big tip of the hat to GDA and the extension personnel that made it happen.
A few of you may have heard of Pred-X. It is an ear tag for sheep/calves that protects against predators by masking the animals' scent. The company, Predex, argued that the product was a deodorant, not a pesticide. An EPA Administrative Law Judge thought otherwise because the intent of the product is 'to prevent or mitigate the activities of a pest, a livestock predator'. The judge ruled that the case seemed to largely a misunderstanding.
In a similar instance that occurred when I was with EPA, pepper spray (used to discourage muggers) was ruled to be a pesticide when it was discovered that people in Alaska were using it to ward off bear attacks. The pepper spray was not considered a pesticide as long as you only sprayed people with it.
According to the National Research Council (NRC), 'the great majority of individual naturally occurring and synthetic food chemicals are present in the human diet at levels so low that they are unlikely to pose an appreciable cancer risk'. The NRC is the research arm of the National Academy of Sciences; they also conclude that about 1/3 of the 1.35 million new cancer cases in the U.S. each year are linked to diet. However, very few are linked to synthetic chemicals. These conclusions are part of "Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet" a recently released report based on an extensive review of data concerning cancer-fighting and cancer-causing substances found in food.
On the other hand, there is money to be made in organic foods. The Packer reports that sales of organic food products rose from $1 billion in 1990 to $2.3 billion in 1994. The price you get for your commodity depends on the supply and demand. An Iowa extension agent reported growers receiving up to $15/bushel for organic soybeans; a New Mexico farmer reports up to $2/lb for specialty, organic potatoes.
The biggest problem is a firm definition for 'organic'. In California, organic produce can have residues of conventional pesticides, as long as the residues do not exceed 10% of the tolerance. There was supposed to be a national standard in place by now, but there isn't. For a list of U.S. Organic Certifiers, check the Web http://www.mother.com.agaccess/
PLOWING THE INTERNET
The National Pest Management Materials Database is an interactive source for pest management materials developed in IPM programs across the U.S. The database should be an up-to-date source for materials on particular subjects, commodities, pest problems, and delivery. See the database at:
For additional information, contact Carl Geiger
1158 Entomology Hall
West Lafayette, IN 47907-1158
The EPA has released a new pesticide guide, "Citizen's Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety. It is a 49 page brochure that offers tips on non-chemical methods, pest prevention, choosing pesticides, and much more for the home and garden. And it's free. I have seen the guide. It has some useful information, and the price is right. Get yours through the Internet in two ways. The EPA gopher and Web site can be found, respectively, at:
National Center for Environmental Publications and Information
P.O. Box 42419
Cincinnati OH 45242-2419
AgriWeb Canada will give you access to information about Canadian agriculture and food. http://www.agr.ca/agriweb.htm
There is lot of information concerning biological control on the Internet. Try these sites to get started. They will lead to other sources.
There has been some confusion about the responsibilities that growers and custom applicators have to notify one another about pesticide applications. The best solution is to work out a simple plan with your custom applicator or customers.
The grower and the custom applicator need to exchange the following information:
*location and description of area to be treated
*time and date of the application
*product name, /EPA registration no., active ingredients, and re-entry interval
*other information specific to the label, such as requirements for oral and written notification.
The most convenient method of communication depends on the situation; possibilities include FAX, e-mail, regular telephone contact, informal meetings over a cup of coffee, and overnight mail. In addition to compliance with WPS, the regular communication will build a better working relationship between the grower and the applicator.
In Case You Missed It
Vapam (metam-sodium) became a restricted-use chemical as of March 1. Only certified applicators with appropriate clothing and equipment will be able to purchase and use Vapam. Vapam is used to control tree roots in sewer lines. This new classification will affect very few applicators.
Ciba Crop Protection has decided which diazinon uses to support through reregistration and which uses to drop. Some uses could not be supported because of dietary concerns; other sites were dropped because of the cost of reregistration. The unsupported sites will be removed from the label by 8/31/96. Products with unsupported uses cannot be sold after this date, but existing stocks can be used by consumers as labeled. Ciba may support additional sites if a third party develops the necessary data.
The following uses are not being supported and are likely to be canceled.
field corn (except seed treatment)
These sites are being supported and are likely to be reregistered.
field corn (seed trtmnt)
Similar decisions about cryolite have also been made. Returns from unsupported sties were not expected to meet the costs of reregistration.
These sites are not being supported and are likely to be canceled. The primary registrants may support these sites along with a third party.
The following sites are being supported.
The registrants have requested cancellation of the following registrations. Most of the these cancellations/deletions are casualties of reregistration; registrants are taking a hard look at the costs of reregistration data and the potential return for their investment. Unless the requests are withdrawn by the registrant, the cancellation takes effect in 90 days from the request (March 8). The only active ingredient that will no longer be available is endothall, disodium salt. Generally, these types of requests allow the continued sale of existing stocks for one year. Users can continue to use supplies indefinitely unless additional regulations (e.g., cancellation of tolerance) are imposed.
1% Rotenone Dust
Acme Destroy 25% Methoxychlor
Bio Guard SI-25 Hospital Spray Combat Ant and Roach Killer III
Disinfectant Spray "H"
Disinfectant and Deodorant
Ferti-Lome Clover, Weed & Winter Ferti-Lome Liquid Poison Ivy Killer
Ferti-Lome Brush Killer Stump Killer
Formula 268 Aqua-Quat
Fusilade 2000 Herbicide
Green Light Tomato & Veg. Garden J-Chlor-2 Concentrate
Lysol Pump Spray Disinfectant
Malathion 4 Pyrethrum 0.2 Dust
Mesurol 75% Concentrate
Mill and Farm Bin Spray
Misty Accur Spray III Wasp & Hornet Patio & Outdoor Special Concentrate
Patio & Outdoor Spray with Repellent
Perkacit Thiram - 99
Provado 1.6 Flowable
Provado 1.6 Flowable
Provado 1.6 Flowable
Rockland Rotenone 1% Dust
Rockland "homeowner" Vegetable-Tomato Dust
Selig's Mister Trim No. 10
Setre Ziram 4 Lb.
Tee Time 5-10-30 with Balan and ULD V-500 5% Vapona Insecticide
Valent Diquat Concentrate
Valent Diquat Water Weed Killer
Valent Weed Killer Concentrate "D"
Valent Weed Killer "D"
REGISTRATIONS WITH REQUESTS FOR AMENDMENTS TO DELETE USES IN CERTAIN PESTICIDE REGISTRATIONS
|Product Name||Delete From Label|
|Garden Rotenone Dust
Quick-Killing Bug Spray
Ida's Roach Spray
Martin's Cube Powder
|Terrestrial food uses
Ornamental & House plants
Carpet & Upholstery
Terrestrial crop uses
|SBP-1382 Liquid Insecticide 0.5% Formula I||Thermal application outdoors|
|Respond w/SBP-1382 Liquid Insecticide Spray 0.5% Formula III||Thermal application outdoors|
|SBP-1382 Oil Base Insecticide 0.20% Formula III||Thermal application outdoors|
|Rockland Rotenone-Pyrethrum Insecticide||Fruit & vegetable uses|
|Prentox Methoxychlor 50W||Agricultural crops, elevator tunnels, parks, beaches, public areas, field & forage crops, mushroom houses, cranberries, grain storage bins, gallery floors, headhouse, standing water, acreage, pet bedding|
|Prentox 2 Lb. Methoxychlor spray||Forage crops, grain storage bins, mosquito control, aircraft spraying|
|Prentox Methoxychlor 25% spray||Forage crops, grain storage bins aircraft spraying|
|SMCP Methoxychlor 2E Emulsifiable Concentrate||Grain storage bins|
|Pratt 1% Rotenone Dust||Terrestrial crop uses|
|Science Red Arrow Insect Spray||Terrestrial crop uses|
|Pratt 50W Methoxychlor for Forest & Shade Trees||Mosquito control|
|Science Garden Insect Spray||Cranberries|
|Science 1% Rotenone||Terrestrial crop uses|
|Science 50% Methoxychlor Wettable Powder||Cranberries|
|Pratt EC 2 Methoxychlor Insect Spray||Area control of adult mosquitoes, screen paint|
|Pratt Methoxy-Diazinon 20-10 EC||Cranberries|
|Green Light Rotenone||Vegetables and fruit uses|
|Methoxychlor 75 Dust||Recreational areas, urban Base & rural areas, agricultural premise use for barns (including dairy barns), milk rooms, pens, sheds, stalls, poultry houses, stables, feed rooms & mature piles, kennels, dog sleeping quarters, cat sleeping quarters, food processing plants (edible & inedible), food processing storage areas (including cereal processing mills, cereal storage areas & flour mills), mausoleums, mushroom house & equipment treatment, transportation vehicles, empty peanut warehouses|
|Casoron 50W Dichlobenil Herbicide||Citrus, nuts other than fibers, figs, mango, alfalfa, avocado, forestry uses, aquatic food uses (lakes/ponds/reservoirs), drainage systems, sewage systems|
|1 Acme Norosac 10G Dichlobenil Herbicide||Citrus, nuts other than fibers, figs, mango, alfalfa, avocado, forestry uses, aquatic food uses (lakes/ponds/reservoirs), drainage systems, sewage systems|
|DYLOX 80 SP Nursery Insecticide||Turf (sod farm) use|
|Garden Rotenone Dust||All food uses|
|Cardinal Food Plant 5-1 Insecticide||Mushroom production & processing|
|Cardinal 25-5 Insecticide||Mushroom production & processing|
|Cube Powder||Terrestrial crop uses|
|Cube Extract||Terrestrial crop uses|
|Terraclor Super X 20-5 Dust w/Graphite||Sugar beet use|
|Agway 25% Methoxychlor Spray||Cranberries, mosquito control (outdoors only), yards, patios, picnic areas|
|ULD BP-300 Insecticide||Greenhouses & horticultural nurseries|
|ULD BP-100 Insecticide||Greenhouses & horticultural nurseries|
|ULD BP-50 Insecticide||Greenhouses & horticultural nurseries|
|Magic Guard with Rotenone & Pyrethrins||Terrestrial crop uses|
|Fire Ant Insecticide with Rotenone||Terrestrial crop uses|
|Drexel Methoxychlor Technical||Agricultural premises, farm buildings, grain storage bins, mushroom houses, elevator tunnels, gallery floors, headhouse, peanut warehouses, freight cars, grain trucks, ships' holds, mosquito breeding areas, alfalfa, cowpeas, forage crops|
|Drexel Methoxychlor 50 WP||Grasses & legumes, farm buildings, grain storage bins, cranberries, field & forage crops, farm buildings, grain storage bins|
|Drexel Methoxychlor 2EC||Forage crops, agricultural premises, farm buildings, grain storage bins, alfalfa, cowpeas, forage grasses, cranberries, mosquito control|
|Drexel Methoxychlor 4L||Farm buildings, mushroom houses, grain storage bins, elevator tunnels, gallery floor, headhouse, peanut warehouses, freight cars, grain trucks, ships' hold, mosquito breeding areas, forage & field crops, peanuts, soybeans, contact & space spray for flies|
|Unicom Flea & Tick Powder for Dogs & Cats #3||Pet bedding use|
|Unicorn Flea & Tick Powder I||Pet bedding use|
|Casoron G-4 Herbicide||Nectarines, peaches, plums, prunes|
|Cheminova Malathion-Methoxychlor Spray||Mosquito control uses|
|SA-50 Brand Fruit Spray Concentrate||Plums|
|Methoxychlor Emulsifiable Concentrate||Grain storage bins|
|50% Methoxychlor Wettable Powder||Grain storage bins|
|50% Methoxychlor Wettable Powder||Farm buildings (livestock buildings & premises), asparagus|
|Methoxychlor Emulsion Concentrate||Aerial applications, beaches, standing water, mosquito breeding areas, farm buildings, grain storage bins, elevator tunnels, peanut warehouses, freight cars, grain trucks, ships' hold, cranberries, asparagus|
|Hopkins Malathion 57% Emulsifiable Liquid Insecticide B||Almonds, apples, cowpea hay, filberts, peanuts, pears, plums, prunes, quinces, safflower, soybeans, sweet potatoes, tobacco, commercial greenhouse uses, forest crops, household uses, domestic pets, in and around house, dairies, food processing plants, livestock uses, stored products, in & around wineries, processing plants|
|Methoxychlor 2 Spray||Aerial application, grain/cereal storage bins|
|DYLOX 80 SP Nursery Insecticide||Turf (sod farm) use|
|Methoxychlor E-2||Cranberries, farm buildings, grain storage bins, non-agricultural land|
|Rotenone Plus Copper Dust||Terrestrial uses|
|Magestic Green 1% Rotenone Dust||Beans, cucumbers, melons, squash, pumpkins, tomatoes, potatoes, egg plants, cabbage, asparagus|
|Imidan Technical||Corn, citrus|
|Unicorn Rotenone Dip||Terrestrial crop uses|
|Acme Methoxychlor 50% Wettable||Farm buildings, asparagus|
|Clean Crop Malathion ULV Concentrate Insecticide||Safflower, soybeans, sugar beets, beef cattle feed lots & holding pens, non-agricultural lands, tomatoes, forestry|
|Clean Crop Methoxychlor 2EC||Mosquito control on beaches, cranberries, dumps, elevator tunnels, farm buildings, freight cars, grain storage bins, grain trucks, mushroom houses, non-agricultural land, peanut warehouses, pet bedding, public parks, ships' holds, standing water, acreage & aerial application|
|Clean Crop Malathion 57EC||Almonds, apples, cowpea hay, filberts, peanuts, pears, plums, prunes, quinces, safflower, soybeans, strawberries, tobacco, stored commodity treatment, animal uses, bagged citrus pulp|
|Clean Crop Malathion 8EC Insecticide||Almonds, apples, cranberries, dates, filberts, pears, plums, quinces, inside buildings, stored grain, field & garden seeds, bagged citrus pulp, bagged surface treatment|
|Clean Crop Malathion/ Methoxychlor Spray||Mosquito control on beaches, cranberries, dumps, elevator tunnels, farm buildings, freight cars, grain storage bins, grain trucks, mushroom houses, non-agricultural land, peanut warehouses, pet bedding, public parks, ships' holds, standing water, acreage & aerial application|
|Clean Crop Malathion||Flax, peas, safflower, soybeans, sugar beets tomatoes, beef cattle feed lots & holding pens, forestry|
|Liquid Seed Treater||Rice, sugar beets|
|Malathion 2 Home Lawn & Garden Spray||Almonds, apples, plums, prunes, quinces, cranberries, soil incorporated application on strawberries|
Last August, more than 240,000 fish were killed in Alabama by pesticide run-off. A massive outbreak of beet armyworm/tobacco budworm, heavy rains, and improper labeling were blamed. Growers were trying to control beets and budworms populations that were resistant to the insecticides typically used.
The pesticide was a product that contains methyl parathion and endosulfan. There was no indication of illegal application, but the label did not carry a warning to allow a 300 ft. buffer between spray sites and water bodies..
Heavy rains fell shortly after some applications. Officials concluded that the event was 'primarily a runoff situation of normal or proper application of a pesticide to a crop site'.
Buying pesticides in bulk may not be such as good deal even when the price tag looks attractive. If you purchase more pesticide than you can use in a short time, the pesticide may not be as effective when you finally apply it. Excessive heat/cold/moisture or time alone can render pesticides ineffective. Most pesticide manufacturers will stand behind their products for no more than two years, an indication that they understand the effective life of their products is limited. The shelf may be even shorter for products that depend on living organisms (e.g., Bacillus thuringiensis) to be effective.
Follow these simple rules to ensure that the product you apply is still active.
1) Buy only as much pesticide as you can use in a short time or store properly.
2) Store pesticides away from excessive temperatures (over 100o F. or less than 32o) and moisture. The pesticide label may offer more specific storage tips.
3) Keep pesticides out of direct sunlight. In addition to overheating products, ultraviolet radiation in sunlight breaks down some pesticides.
3) If a product looks old in the store, ask your dealer how long he has the pesticide stored.
4) Keep stored pesticides tightly sealed. If a container is damaged or cannot be resealed, place the entire container in a larger container (e.g., garbage bag or can) that can be sealed.
5) When you buy pesticides, write the date on them. Then you can use the older materials first.
6) Store volatile materials (especially herbicides) separately to avoid cross-contamination.
The last two pages are a useful table of information you can detach and keep about the shelf life of specific chemicals. The information comes by way of Charles Sacamano and Jeff Carlson. There are some gaps and ambiguous language, but this information is all we have for now.
(not all trade names listed)
|SHELF LIFE (years)||COMMENTS
(all temp. in F.)
||Granules stable. EC may crystallize at low temp. but redissolve if warmed.|
|Dacthal (DCPA)||at least 2||If tightly sealed in a cool, dry place.|
|Roundup (glyphosate)||at least 2||Store above 10o. and below 140o. Don't store/mix/apply in galvanized steel or unlined steel containers.|
|Princep (simazine)||indefinite||Has been stored up to 9 years under good conditions.|
|Treflan (trifluralin)||3||Storage for long periods below 40o may reduce efficacy of EC. Lost 15-20% activity when stored over 100o. Flash point is 119o. Stable for 3 years when stored dry and below 80o.|
|2,4-D||Esters, amines, salts and formulations vary in properties. Check label directions.|
|Kerb||at least 2||Under normal conditions.|
|Paraquat||indefinite||Extremely stable, but do not allow to freeze.|
|Surflan (oryzalin)||3||If stored at high temp., mix very well before using.|
|Sevin (carbaryl)||several||WP has been stored up to 5 years. Freezing/thawing may reduce efficacy of flowables.|
|Diazinon||5-7||Keep dry and tightly sealed. Use 4E within 6 mo. of opening container.|
|Cygon (dimethoate)||Keep from freezing. Keep away from heat, flash point from 73o to 100o.|
|Malathion||indefinite||WP very stable under proper conditions. Decomposes at high temperatures. Do not store liquids below 0o.|
|Meta-Systox R (oxydemeton-methyl)||2|
|Marlate (methoxychlor)||indefinite||WP very stable under proper conditions.|
|Kelthane (dicofol)||WP stable under normal conditions.|
|Kop Mite (chlorobenzilate)||Keep EC away from heat/flame. Store above 32o.|
|Benlate (benomyl)||2||Keep dry, tightly sealed. Will decompose if moist. Nonflammable.|
|Karathane (dinocap)||WP stable under normal conditions. Do not store liquids near heat/flame.|
|Zineb||limited||Decomposes if exposed to moisture, heat, or air. Flammable by-products may form in decomposition.|
|Thiram||4||Keep dry, tightly sealed and under 100o.|
|Vapam (metam-sodium)||Do not store below 0o. Crystallizes at lower temperatures. Redissolve crystals by warming before use.|
|Methyl bromide||Store in a cool, well-ventilated place.|
|Agzinphos (zinc phoshide)||at least 2||Exposure to moisture produces phosphine, spontaneously flammable and highly toxic.|
(with ackowledgement to C. Sacamano & J. Carlson)
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Paul Guillebeau, Assistant Professor & Extension Entomologist Putting Knowledge to Work