Pesticide Disposal/Container Recycling
Believe It or Not
Who Has the Most Toxic Venom?
Operation Green Stripe
Don't Do It
Waste Not, Want Not
Lookin' for a Home
If You Build It, They Will Beat a Path to Your Door
Food Quality Protection Act
Health and Safety
Georgia Fruit and Vegetable Association
Plowing the Internet
NOTICE * * * NOTICE * * * NOTICE
Many people have also called our office to resolve disputes over the number of recertification hours they have. Detsy Bridges has always logged in the hours from every green sheet from every applicator for every meeting. We have faced some staff cut-backs, and Mrs. Bridges will be tackling some new responsibilities. As of June 30, you will have to keep verification of your recertification credits just in case you and GDA disagree on the number of hours you have.
DowElanco plans to withdraw a series of chlorpyrifos uses, including indoor broadcast flea control, indoor foggers, and pet applications. The EPA has concluded that chlorpyrifos is one of the primary causes of acute pesticide poisonings in U.S.
Most of the poisoning incidents are probably related to the fact that chlorpyrifos is so widely used. Chlorpyrifos is registered for hundreds of uses, including scores of agricultural crops, commercial pest control,and home-owner products.
DowElanco did not agree that there were strong safety concerns about chlorpyrifos, although they are cooperating with EPA in the removal from several markets. The company reports that they were already removing chlorpyrifos from the market before the EPA agreement. The company decision to remove chlorpyrifos products may be related to the newly passed Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), which requires food tolerances to consider all non-occupational exposures of a pesticides. In addition to the homeowner market, chlorpyrifos is registered on many food crops.
Under the agreement with EPA, DowElanco agreed to remove chlorpyrifos from the following markets.
In addition, the company will seek to reduce poisoning incidents. They will increase protections for crack/crevice treatments, market ready-to-use, low concentration products, and set additional restrictions for pest-control operators and home uses. Labels will reflect appropriate retreatment intervals and caution against inappropriate uses. Training for pest-control operators will be increased. Finally, an epidemological study will be conducted, including the continued operation of Poison Control Center at the Unversity of Minnesota.
Chlorpyrifos will still be available to control termites, ticks, roaches, etc., that may cause structural damage or transmit diseases.
Although the agreement seems to concentrate on home-owner uses, most serious poisonings with chlorpyrifos have occurred because of misuse or accidents by pest-control operators. Pesticides are usually removed from the market for a reason. If you do not use pesticides responsibly, additional regulation is inevitable.5
Zeneca has quit producing fonofos (Dyfonate). It is typically used at planting on peanuts, sweet potato, corn, and other crops. The primary targets were wireworm, billbug, rootworms, and other soil pests. The registration for Dyfonate will be maintained for up to three years. If you have Dyfonate, use it up. After the registration is allowed to lapse, you will not be allowed to use Dyfonate legally. If you cannot use Dyfonate that you have on hand; give it away, sell it, or try to return it to your pesticide dealer.
Flowable carbofuran will be cancelled for use on strawberry and grapes, effective May 14, 1997, at the request of the registrant. Existing stocks will be distributed until May 14, 1998; end-users may continue to use the product until stocks are exhausted. If you wish to comment, contact Don Carlson (FMC Corporation) at 215-299-6436 before May 14.
The following pesticide products will be cancelled July 21, 1997 unless the request for cancellation is withdrawn. Existing stocks may be sold for an additional year. Products in the hands of end-users may be used according to the label indefinitely. Anyone who wants to preserve any of these product registrations should contact the registrant directly.
*The active ingredient ryanodine will no longer be available if these products are cancelled.
Round-up Ready soybeans and other crops have come to the market, amid news that it is nearly impossible for weeds to become resistant to glyphosate (Round-Up). As is often the case, we have been looking through rose-colored glasses. According to 'Resistant Pest Management' (Winter 1996), there are few constraints to weeds becoming resistant to glyphosate. Additionally, they report annual ryegrass in Australia that is resistant to glyphosate. Clearly, we need to consider resistance management instead of assuring ourselves that resistance is unlikely.
The EPA is granting conditional registration for Monsanto's new B.t. corn. The conditions require Monsanto to comply with a stringent plan to manage pest resistance to B.t. Monsanto plans to use a combination of refugia and a high-dose to reduce the liklihood of resistance. The refugia are supposed to allow some pests to escape the pesticide, and the high-dose is supposed to kill 100% of pests. Monsanto must monitor for resistance and report any occurrence immediately. Additionally, no more than 100,000 acres of B.t. corn may be grown in the cotton belt. The registration, for field corn only, will automatically expire April 1, 2001.
According to the University of Delaware (Pesticide Briefs), the EPA, the FTC, state attorneys, and state regulatory agencies may consider these terms to be deceptive and/or misleading: environmentally safe, nontoxic, harmless, contains all natural ingredients, orgainc, giodegradable, nontoxe, to humans and pets, and EPA-approved.
The USDA will hold a meeting in April to discuss potential B.t. resistance resulting from B.t. genes insertion in corn, cotton, etc. Many people are concerned that the widespread use of B.t. genes in crops will result in B.t. resistance for organic and sustainable agriculture as well. Currnetly, the potato plan calls for sampling of Colorado beetle populations. The cotton and corn plans call for refugia for part of the pest population. Some portion of the field must be planted in non-B.t. corn or cotton. The findings of the B.t. forum will be published later this year.
The Georgia Clean Day Program set a new record by collecting and disposing of nearly 28,000 pounds of waste pesticide in Screven County. Chemicals collected include DDD, DDT, Toxaphene, and 2,4,5 T (similar to Agent Orange). In addition, the program has recycled more than 125,000 pounds of pesticide containers. Way to go!!
We receive many calls from other people who have discovered or inherited large amounts of unusable pesticides. Currently, there is often no legal method of disposal. You cannot dump large amounts of pesticide into a landfill; you cannot bury or burn them. PLEASE do not dump them on some lonely country road.
You have not been forgotten or abandoned. A coalition of Georgia agricultural interests is trying to generate funds to collect and dispose of waste pesticides state-wide. The coalition includes the University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service, the Georgia Dept. of Agriculture, Georgia Farm Bureau, and the Agricultural Chemicals Association of Georgia. We plan to collect information on the amount of waste pesticide throughout the state; this information will presented to the Georgia legislature in a request for funding of this worthy project.
You can help. If you have waste pesticides, store them securely in containers that will not leak. Your county Extension office can offer advice. Additionally, if you have political connections, bring this problem to the attention of your legislators. Waste pesticides are a serious environmental problem, but it is one that we can eliminate.
The EPA has released a CD version of all registered pesticide products. The CD's (25 of them) contain images of all labels. The labels can be searched by registration number only; partial reg. numbers can also be used. However, I do not think that this version will be searchable by crop, pest, etc. The whole system will cost about $640 per year, including quarterly updates. For more information,call 703-305-5259. (FR 2-26-97). We are ordering a copy of the CD's; we will let you know if they are worth the cost.
The EPA has issued a final rule (PR96-8) on pesticides that contaminate other pesticides. The EPA has realized that periodic cross-contamination of pesticides is inevitable but not always important.
The threshold level of regulated cross-contamination depends on the pesticide and the contaminant. Any pesticide (including plant growth regulators, disiccants, and defoliants) that is contaminated with any other pesticide at 1000 ppm or greater would be affected by this regulation. Any pesticide applied to the human body would be affected if the contaminant (any pesticide) reaches 100 ppm. Contamination with herbicides, particularly low rate herbicides, may have an even lower threshold. Consult the Federal notice for complete details.
A registrant with any pesticide that is contaminated beyond the threshold must notify EPA. The EPA will decide whether to allow the sale and use of the contaminated material. Notification of EPA is not necessary if the contaminant does not exceed EPA thresholds.
Regulations regarding bulk packaging of pesticides are not new, but I was recently reminded of them. In a nutshell, pesticides may be packaged/shipped in bulk (more than 55 gal. liquid or 100 lbs. dry) at the distributor level IF no changes are required in 1) the formulation, 2) the labeling, 3) the identity of the party accountable for the pesticide. Otherwise, there is penalty of up to $5000 per offense. Registrants and bulk repackagers are responsible for fulfilling this regulation. If you need more information, call David Stangel (202-564-4162).
The EPA is considering emergency exemptions (Sect. 18) for the use of 'reduced-risk' pesticides. Until now, exemptions have granted exemptions based solely on the grower need for the pesticide (e.g., no registered pesticide was effective, and the grower would suffer significant economic loss). Section 18's were never granted for a pesticide simply because it was safer than registered pesticides.
It has now been proposed to grant exemptions if states could demonstrate that the requested pesticide posed fewer adverse effects than registered alternatives. Such a program would encourage the use of safer alternatives, but there are also pitfalls. Because the risk endpoints of each petition will vary, it will be difficult to make consistent decisions. Additionally, the importance of different risk endpoints may be impossible to rank. For example, suppose the registered alternative poses a moderate risk of human poisoning but no risks to birds or fish; the requested exemption has no risk for human poisoning but presents a moderate risk to birds. Should the exemption be granted?
For the puposes of discussion, the following criteria are proposed.
This idea sounds very good, but the emergency exemption process has been subject to cheating from the beginning. There is a tremendous economic incentive for registrants to bring their product to market as soon as possible, and some states are all too willing to cry 'emergency.' Because emergency exemptions must be evaluated quickly, EPA must often make decisions based on the report from the state.
This new process could have a substantial impact on agricultural production and the reduction of adverse effects. Consider these changes carefully. We expect the Federal Register Notice to be issued in April, followed by a 30 day comment period. I will keep you informed and advised of your opportunity for input.
The EPA is accepting submissions for registration and reregistration activities that were put on hold because of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA).
Priority reviews include Section 18 (emergency exemptions), time limited tolerances/registrations, reduced-risk pesticides, biological pesticides, pending applications, and reregistration. New applications for registration of pesticide chemicals will receive lower priority. Supplemental information affecting any of these actions should be submitted to:
FQPA Supplemental Information
401 M St, SW
Washington DC 20460
Pesticide companies will be allowed to self-certify product chemistry data, under a proposal from EPA. Companies will submit a one-page summary of the product's physical/chemical characteristics, a certification statement, and a statement of GLP practices. The actual data will not be submitted, but it will remain on file at the company. The EPA had also considered allowing self-certification of acute toxicity, but public comment caused EPA to change their mind. The rule regarding self-certification for product chemistry is open for public comment until April 7. If you want more information, contact Sami Malak of EPA at 703-308-8392.
The Endangered Species Act is a top priority for 1997, and battle lines are being drawn. The Republicans want preeminence of state water rights, cost-benefit considerations in recovery plans for listed species, limited consultation with the Fish & Wildlife Service, and waived requirements for National Environmental Policy Act participation. The National Wildlife Federation and other are mobilizing.
I have really mixed emotions over this issue. Every extinction is an irrevocable loss to mankind, but humans have rights as well. Think about this issue and determine which side you support.
There are about 19,000 pesticides registered in the U.S., from about 800 active ingredients. About 9,000 products are registered for food crops. For all pesticides, there are about 1.25 billion pounds of active ingredient applied. Retail sales account for approximately $18 billion.
Carol Browner (administrator of EPA) has announced that one of her top priorities is a 'fair share' of regulatory burdens between point and non-point sources of pollution. Cities and industrial groups seem to be trying to point the finger back at agriculture. The EPA wants to look at the entire load of pollutants from all sources.
Recent developments continue to condemn methyl bromide. A Dutch study reported by Assoc. Press predicts that control on ozone-depleting chemicals will prevent 1.5 million annual cases of skin cancer in the U.S. by the yeay 2100. There are currently 800,000 cases of skin cancer in the United States. The AP report specifically mentions the need to 'get methyl bromide out of the system.'
The EPA has released a book of methyl bromide alternatives that may be useful. The book, Methyl bromid alternatives: 10 case studies Vol. II, includes nematode resistant cultivars, chloropicrin in strawberries, organic strawberries, soil solarization, vineyard IPM, heat treatments and irradiation for commodities, and sulfuryl flouride for structural treatments. If you would like a copy, call the Ozone Protection Hotline (800-296-1996).
If you want to stay current on the latest methyl bromide research and replacements, hit the Net.
Most farmers in California think that regulations make farming more difficult and that regulations are difficult to understand. However, 75% of the surveyed farmers agree that regulation is a necessary evil. Large farms spend about 38 hours per month on paperwork; small farms spend about 8 hours. All size farms reported that about 20% of their paperwork dealt with regulatory compliance. Only about 1/2 of the growers thought that complete compliance was achievable. About 70% of growers had changed chemical usage as a result of regulations; 66% spent more time training employees; 62% used more safety equipment. (Calif. Agriculture, Oct. '96)
A wide variety of insects produce venoms, including some moths/butterflies, true bugs (stinkbugs, etc.) and bees/wasps/ants. Surprisingly, the insect with the venom most toxic to mammals is a type of harvester ant, with an LD50 of 0.12 mg/kg), which means mammals weighing 1 kg would be killed by a mere six stings half the time. More familar stingers on the list included yellowjacket with an LD50 of 3.5 mg/kg and the honeybee (2.8 mg/kg). When I was a child, we feared the 'cow-killer' over all other stinging insects; it was a light-weight with an LD50 of 71 mg/kg. (Access-Pesticides, Dec. '96)
Integrated Pest Management is moving out of the field an into stores, but we still have some work to do. In a recent survey conducted by Oklahoma State Univ. (PC July '96), most grocers in AR, TX, and OK used some type of IPM, including santitation, traps, screens, and temperature manipulation. The use of these practices ranged widely from state to state, with 90% of TX grocers using sanitation to control insects to only 26% of grocers in OK using this technique for insects. The majority of grocers also applied pesticides to control insect pests.
Grocers felt somewhat concerned about pesticides used in stores, but they felt that their customers were unconcerned. [Which are you more likely to complain about, pesticides used in the store or a roach scurrying under the produce counter?] Ironically, grocers think that consumers are very concerned about pesticide residues on fresh produce.
There is some confusion about which insects are the real pests. Roaches, flies, weevils, and ants were the most common pests reported by managers; the primary catches in pitfall traps were indianmeal moth, merchant grain beetle, and drugstore beetle.
The EPA has issued a RED (reregistration eligigility document) for cryolite. The following sites are being supported and are eligible for reregistration: broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower,citrus fruits, collards, cranberry, cucumber, eggplant, grape, kohlrabi, lettuce, melon, peach, pepper, plum, pumpkin, squash, tomato, kiwi, potato, ornamental plants, and shade trees. Once the product specific data, confidential statements of formula, and revised labeling are approved, cryolite products can be reregistered.
These sites are NOT being supported. Tolerances are likely to be revoked. Apple, apricot, beans, beet (root and tops), blackberry, boysenberry, carrot, corn, dewberry, kale, loganberry, mustard greens, nectarines, okra, peanut, pear, pea, quince, radish, turnip, and youngberry. (Aug. '96)
A reregistration eligibility document has been released for tridecenyl acetates and S-kinoprene. They are the sex attractant pheromone used to disrupt mating of tomato pinworm and an insect juvenile hormone analog, respectively. All uses are eligible for reregistration.
Monsanto developed this program some years ago to prevent soil run-off into waterways. The concept is simple; Future Farmers of America ask growers to plant grass buffer strips along waterways. The grass seed is provided at no cost. The local FFA chapter receives educational grant money from Monsanto. Agriculture is responsible for a large portion of the sediment that reaches U.S. waterways each year. Vegetative buffers can capture up to 70% of that sediment, addition to reducing pesticide run-off.
Interested? Call Angela Rushing at Monsanto (904-385-3447) or Doug Jones of the Ga. Dept. of Agric. (404-656-4958)
Methyl parathion is a highly toxic organophosphate insecticide registered for cotton, soybean, and other agricultural crops. Nearly 700 people were evacuated from 150 homes. Applied correctly outdoors, it is not considered to be very dangerous, but I would not want methyl parathion sprayed in my home.
We very nearly lost methyl parathion for all agricultural uses as well, but cooler heads ultimately prevailed. The registrant will recall all unopened containers and add a chemical with a very unpleasant odor to prevent indoor use.
If you need additional information about methyl parathion, call 800-858-7378 or 404-639-0615.
A city in Indiana has agreed to pay $15,000 (of a $50,000 fine) for dumping a pesticide into a local creek last October. The city has also agreed to two years' probation, during which they will ensure a training program for all city personell and apologize to local residents.
Penalties for FIFRA violations have increased 10%. General penalties fof commercial applicators are now $5,500. General penalties for private applicators are $550 for first violations.
U.S. citizens throw away nearly 14 billion pounds of food each year, enough to feed 49 million people. This much food would fill 46,000 Boeing 747 jets. Much of the food is food that is prepared, but not sold, by restaurants, hotels, and grocery stores.
The USDA is trying to put this food to good use. Congress and the White House passed the Good Samaritan Food Donation Act to protect donors from unwarranted liability. The Department of Agriculture has a toll-free number to call for more information: 800-GLEAN-IT. Get on board; this program is a great idea.
Georgia growers have an emergency exemption (Sec. 18) for the use of Zorial Rapid 80 to control crabgrass, goosegrass, and broadleaf signalgrass in hybrid bermudagrass hay fields.
The EPA has granted food tolerances for the following pesticides.
Clofencet (plant growth regulator): wheat (as a primary application), cereal grains (except rice, wild rice, sweet corn, and wheat), soybeans (as a rotational crop), and animal products.
Thiazopyr (herbicide): orange, grapefruit.
The USDA have synthesized a sex pheromone that prevents beet armyworm males from locating a mate for more than 100 days. This discovery could be a welcome addition to control the troublesome beet armyworm. For more information, call Everett Mitchell 352-374-5710. (Ag. Res. Jan. 1997)
Spinsosad is the first new product registered under the new Food Quality Protection Act. Derived from the soild bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa, it is registered on cotton to control booworms, leaf perforator, European corn borer, armyworms, loopers, etc. There are no acute or chronic concerns for mammals,birds, or aquatic organisms. It is highly toxic to bees.
Azoxystrobin (Heritage) was registered on Feb. 7 to control brown patch, pythium, and leaf spot on golf courses and commercial turf. It is the first in a new class derived from some European funigi. It has no acute risk concerns for birds, mammals, or bees. It is highly toxic to aquatic organisms.
Fludioxoneil (maxim) registration has been expanded to include ornamental plants in containers. It was first registered to control soil and seed-borne diseases of corn and sorghum. It is almost non-toxic to birds, mammals, and honey bees. It is moderately-highly toxic to aquatic organisms.
An extract from neem seeds is the active ingredient in three new biopesticides. The USDA and Thermo Trilogy have discovered that the neem oil can control both insect pests and fungal diseases. The new products will be called Trilogy, Triact, and Rose Defense. Call James Locke at 301-504-6413 for more information. (Ag. Res. Jan. 1997)
The EPA has established a time-limited tolerance for benoxacor as a safener for metolachlor products. The tolerance for raw agricultural products with an EPA tolerance for metolochlor expires Feb. 14, 1998.
The EPA has registered six new biological pesticides.
Cotton growers in Mississippi are voting whether to continue the boll weevil eradication program. Some growers claim that boll weevil sprays eliminated beneficial insects that help control tobacco budworm, resulting in reduced cotton yields. Mississippi growers will need a 50% voter turnout and a 2/3 majority to keep the program going.
Around the rest of country, the boll weevil program is meeting mixed reactions. Texas stopped the eradication program after low yields were blamed on the boll weevil treatments. Louisiana and Arkansas have recently passed referendums to begin eradication programs. (Pest. and Tox. Chem. News 1-1-97)
Mousetraps are the most invented machine in American history. There have been more than 4400 patents since 1838. About 40 mousetrap patents are granted each year and about 400 are rejected. What is the most popular? The familiar snap-trap, invented nearly 100 years ago. (Utah Pestic. and Tox. News, 11-7-96)
The EPA will begin evaluating the more dangerous chemicals first, including the organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The Agency typically takes actions against pesticides considered to be the most risky.
There is talk around Washington that organophosphates and carbamates will take some very big hits from FQPA. I have been asked if we can estimate the impact of losing all OP's and carbamates. I told them we might as well throw away the insect control sections of the Pest Control Handbook.
There are new rules regarding Section 18's under FQPA. Be sure to provide the following information.
Send your applications as early as possible. These new provisions will undoubtedly increase review time.
The EPA is required to provide consumers with information concerning pesticide residues on food. The brochure must include a discussion of pesticide risks/benefits, recommendations to reduce exposures (while maintaining a healthy diet), any pesticide tolerances that EPA has set based on pesticide benefits, the foods that may contain these residues, and reasonable substitutes for those foods. The EPA has two years to make this brochure available to supermarkets.
States and localities may also require warnings on foods that bear pesticide residues. There is a wild card, however. The manner in which the information is displayed is strictly up ot the grocer. They may choose to place it on a small rack under the cigarette machine.
Call me cynical, but I doubt that the general public is sophisicated enough to digest the complexity involved in pesticide risks and benefits. I think the public is smart enough, but they have other things to worry about, especially when they come to the grocery store. If I don't come home with the items that my wife listed, pesticide residues are the least of my worries.
The EPA expects to release a schedule for implementation of FQPA sometime in March. We will keep you informed.
As of Jan. 1, New York will monitor the sale and use of all pesticides used by commercial and private applicators; farmers applying pesticides to their own farms are exempt. The law was passed because environmental groups successfully argued that breast cancer on Long island was linked to pesticides in the water.
Darned if you do and darned if you don't. A 1992 study discovered that lighter weight, untreated fabrics amiliorated heat stress slightly but allowed more pesticide exposure. (Archives of Environ. Contam. and Toxic., 23: 281) Our advice: drink plenty of water and allow yourself time to become acclimated to the heat.
Do you wash vegetables and fruits to remove pesticide residues? Good for you, but not for the reasons you might think. Many fresh fruits and vegetables carry a substantial load of micro-organisms, sometimes including organisms that cause food poisoning. Research shows that a rinse with 5% acetic acid and 3% hydrogen peroxide removed most bacteria. (IANR, Sept. 1996 via Pesticides Coordinator Report)
The EPA is trying to revise pesticide labels for general-use products to make them easier to understand. Proposed revisions include changing 'statements of practical treatment' to 'First Aid,' including emergency/informational numbers on the label, and using common names for active ingredients.
There is a real quandry in this issue. Consumers say that they want complete information, but they often do not read beyond the headings. The heading 'Hazards to humans and animals' was often interpreted as 'Hazardous to humans and animals. Good luck.'
The Georgia Department of Agriculture is planning a mock inspection at McCorkle's Nursery on March 27. The inspection will include WPS, a general use inspection, and a certified nursery inspection. Participants will receive two hours of recertification credit. If you wish to attend, call McCorkle's (706-597-8022) or Doug Jones (404-656-4958) right away.
The cut rose industry has been granted a two-year exemption from some requirements of WPS. Specifically, hand-harvesting will be allowed before pesticide REI's expire. If you need more information, call 703-305-7666.
The GFVGA was formed last fall to give Georgia fruit and vegetable growers a unified voice. The advantage is obvious. When Phosdrin was cancelled, the EPA only considered the voice of the California lettuce growers because they had a strong, unified voice. If you have an organization, you don't have to just grumble; you can make state and federal legislators pay attention!
GFVGA is working to keep fruits and vegetables exempt from expiration dates, allow growers to burn plastic row cover plastic (instead of clogging landfills), and restoring $2.6 million in the current budget for research/extension.
Get with the team. Support GFVGA!!
The results of the Consumer Labeling Initiative can be seen at:
They are trying to improve pesticide labeling for consumer products. Good luck, they will need it. Homeowners seem to be the worst group for applying more pesticide than they need and ignoring pesticide labeling.
http://www.colostate.edu/depts/IPM/natparks/natpark.html -- You will find IPM recommendations for the nation's park system.
The appearance of any trade name in this newsletter is not intended to endorse that product nor convey negative implications of unmentioned products.
The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter is a monthly journal for Extension agents, Extension specialists, and others interested in pest management news. It provides information on legislation, regulations, and other issues affecting pest management in Georgia.
Do not regard the information in this newsletter as pest management recommendations. Consult the Georgia Pest Control Handbook, other Extension publications, or appropriate specialists for this information.
Your input in this newsletter is encouraged.
If you wish to be added to the mailing list, just call us at 706-542-3687.
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317 Hoke Smith Building
The University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602
Paul Guillebeau, Assistant Professor & Extension Entomologist