The University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences
Cooperative Extension Service


The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter

Your source for pest management and pesticide news

May 1997/Volume 19, no. 3

FQPA NOTEBOOK
Is the 'risk cup' half-empty or half-full?
When pesticides are registered under FQPA, the EPA focuses on three key issues
FEDERAL NEWS
The EPA plans to relax some glove rules under the Worker Protection Standard
Minor crops hope to receive additional funding for pesticide development from the White House
The EPA asks for registrants to indicate their top five conventional pesticide actions by the end of June
In an agreement with EPA, Hasbro will no longer make health claims about a new line of toys treated with Microban (triclosan), a bacteriacide
The EPA Office of Water proposes a policy that would allow states between 8 and 13 years to begin cleaning up waterways identified as 'impaired'
Here are some goals and objectives of the EPA Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances

WATCH YOUR DRIFT!
WPS NOTEBOOK
How would you like for someone to come to your farm and train your workers in WPS in English or Spanish for free?
Greenhouse-grown cut roses have received an extension for an exception from WPS early-entry requirements

NEWS YOU CAN USE
The EPA has established a temporary exemption (expires Dec. 31, 1999) from tolerance for kaolin.
The EPA extended the tolerance for imidacloprid resulting from rotational practices in or on cucurbits until Dec. 31, 1997.
HEALTH & ENVIRONMENT
A report released by the North Carolina Pesticide Board says that groundwater may be contaminated by legally used pesticides
The EPA and DowElanco do not agree on the hazards posed by chlorpyrifos
Berkeley researchers Bruce Ames and Lois Gold contend that much pesticide regulatory activity is based on scientific 'myths' and other misinformation
Counties in northern California have halted the use of herbicides along highways

ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT
CANCELED
MONEY
The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is offering cash and assistance to landowners and operators
The USDA has a new program, Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), that will help farmers pay for land management practices that the farmer could not afford

METHYL BROMIDE UPDATE
BIOTECHNOLOGY
IPM NOTES



I need your help. We sent out pesticide surveys to the top 10-15 Georgia counties in dairy and pecan. If you received a pecan or dairy pesticide survey, please send it back to me. This information is important for protecting pesticide registrations. Send me the information, and I will do the work. The postage is paid.

FQPA NOTEBOOK

Is the 'risk cup' half-empty or half-full? Under FQPA, this question can be critical. The EPA must consider each new tolerance by how much room is left in the 'risk cup.' The risk cup illustrates how much a person should be exposed to pesticides. The cup includes both dietary and nonoccupational exposure (e.g., termite treatments, homeowner use). As long as room remains in the cup, additional registrations may be granted.

If the risk cup is full, the process becomes more complicated. The EPA may not grant an additional use or tolerance unless someone proves that the cup was not full or that some risk can be removed. New data may show that the risks were not as large as originally estimated, or someone may have an idea that will reduce the risk.

The problem is the lack of information about the nonoccupational risks. No one really knows how much nonoccupational exposure the typical American receives. The risks associated with this exposure are also unclear. Ordinarily, the EPA will reserve about 10-20% of the risk cup for nonoccupational exposure. The risk reserve may be reduced or increased as additional data become available.

When pesticides are registered under FQPA, the EPA focuses on three key issues.

  1. Special protection for infants and children. Under the new law, no other considerations (e.g., benefits) can be used to circumvent this rule.
  2. Aggregate exposure and risk from foods and other known sources, such as drinking water and household pesticide use. Although a key point, this determination will be difficult. The EPA can identify the potential sources of exposure, but there are few data to quantify the exposure from household pesticide use, lawn care, or other nonoccupational exposures.
  3. Consideration of common mechanisms of toxicity. If this risk cup is full for a particular mode of action, a similar pesticide will not be registered. Do not try to register any new organophosphate or carbamate insecticides.

The EPA may understand the latter two points following a March report from the Scientific Advisory Panel. The panel report will consider how to assess risks posed by multiple chemicals that have a common mechanism of action or effect. Additionally, they will discuss how to develop more accurate estimates of pesticide exposure from all sources, including exposure through the diet, in drinking water, or because of pesticide use in and around the home.

FEDERAL NEWS

The EPA plans to relax some glove rules under the Worker Protection Standard. If the USDA approves, pilots entering or exiting crop dusting planes will not have to wear chemical-resistant gloves, and anyone can wear separable absorbent liners under their chemical-resistant gloves. Want more information? Contact Joshua First of EPA (703-305-7437 or first.joshua@epamail.epa.gov). Tell him that Paul sent you.

Minor crops hope to receive additional funding for pesticide development from the White House. The IR-4 program is proposed for a $5 million budget increase in the President's FY98 budget. Because IR-4 helps minor crops get critical pesticide registrations, the USDA continues to emphasize the program. The 1995-2000 plan will stress three major goals: conventional pesticide registrations (including IPM compatible products), biopesticides (e.g., microbials, biochemicals, genetically engineered products), and pesticides for ornamental crops.

The EPA asks for registrants to indicate their top five conventional pesticide actions by the end of June. Requested actions may include new applications, new uses, EUPs, amendments, and actions regarding inert ingredients. Note that biopesticides and antimicrobials are not included in this request.

For conventional pesticides, the EPA will set priorities in the following order.

  1. Methyl bromide alternatives. The phase-out date for methyl bromide is just around the corner.
  2. Reduced risk pesticides. For reduced-risk pesticides, registration will be relatively easy.
  3. Vulnerable crops. Crops at risk will be identified by USDA/EPA. No word on exactly how those crops will be picked, but the list will include crops that lose critical pesticides due to FQPA.
  4. Minor use pesticides. Many minor use registrations will also be affected by #3 above.
  5. Non-minor uses. If you want to register a pesticide, it would be wise to involve a minor crop.
  6. International policy issues. There may be some important international issues regarding FQPA because many U.S. pesticide tolerances may be reduced below international standards. This #6 priority could quickly move to the top.

(EPA Press Advisory, 4-25-97)

In an agreement with EPA, Hasbro will no longer make health claims about a new line of toys treated with Microban (triclosan), a bacteriacide. Microban is registered by EPA as a bacteriacide to be added into plastics to protect the plastic from degradation by bacteria or fungus. Manufacturers use it in cutting boards, garbage pails, etc.

Microban is not sold to protect public health. It is not intended to kill Salmonella or other human pathogens that may grow on cutting boards and other utensils.

However, Hasbro began to market a new line of toys with the claim that the added Microban was protecting children from germs that might be on the toys. In effect, Hasbro said that these toys were controlling a pest. Therefore, sayeth the EPA, these toys are pesticides, and they are not registered with EPA. Additionally, the EPA has not registered Microban as a public health pesticide.

There are nine Playskool toys affected.

Surprisingly, I have heard no concerns about toddler toys containing pesticide. This regulatory action is based solely on the health claims made by Hasbro. The EPA reports that there is no evidence that there is any health risk from plastic toys that contain Microban.

Under the agreement with EPA, Hasbro has 90 days to inform the public about the public health claim, including relabeling/repackaging all affected toys. Hasbro must also publish large advertisements in the USA Today, Parents, American Baby, Child, and Parenting. Finally, the company must pay a $120,000 penalty and perform some public service. (EPA Environ. News, 4-18-97)

The EPA Office of Water proposes a policy that would allow states between 8 and 13 years to begin cleaning up waterways identified as 'impaired' in 1998. The EPA requires states to list impaired waterways every two years and establish total maximum daily loads (TDML) for each significant pollutant. If EPA approves the TDMLs, the state must carry out a plan for point and nonpoint sources of the pollutant. The EPA will take over if a state does not take responsibility.

Additionally, the EPA is also developing a list of contaminants for future regulation. The list includes acetachlor, alachlor, aldicarb, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diuron, endosulfan, malathion, metolachlor, methyl parathion, metribuzin, propanil, terbacil, triazines (and degradates), and trifluralin. These pesticides are currently unregulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (Arrow Newsletter, 4-97)

The USDA is developing a plan for small farms. If you want to be involved or if you just want information, contact Denis Ebodaghe, National Program Leader, Small Farms, CSREES, at 202/401-4385; 202/401-5179 (fax); or debodaghe@reeusda.gov

Here are some goals and objectives of the EPA Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances

By the year 2005:

It would be interesting to place these goals into a time capsule to see what happens by 2005. I'm not trying to be too critical; a review of my goals from ten years ago would probably be quite entertaining.

WATCH YOUR DRIFT!

The American Assoc. of Pesticide Control Officials (AAPCO) took a survey to find the importance of the problems associated with drift. Some results are surprising.

(Pesticide Drift Enforcement Survey 1996, AAPCO via the Label 4-97)

WPS NOTEBOOK

You say you don't have time to teach all of your new workers according to the Worker Protection Standard. You say you don't the money to hire a trainer. You say you can't afford for the workers to go half way across the state to be trained. You say you can't talk that Spanish so good. Buddy, have I got a deal for you!

How would you like for someone to come to your farm and train your workers in WPS in English or Spanish for free? We can do that for you. Through AmeriCorps, we have hired four people to train workers in WPS. They have already trained hundreds of workers in Georgia, and they would like to help you. If you want to set up a training session, call Doug Jones at the Ga. Dept. of Agriculture (404-656-4958).

Greenhouse-grown cut roses have received an extension for an exception from WPS early-entry requirements. Growers have to sign an agreement that stipulates exactly when and how workers will be allowed in the greenhouse to harvest roses. If you need more information, contact my office.

NEWS YOU CAN USE

The EPA has established a temporary exemption (expires Dec. 31, 1999) from tolerance for kaolin. It can be applied to apple, apricot, banana, bean, cane berry, citrus fruits, corn, cotton, cranberry, cucurbit, grapes, melon, nuts, ornamentals, peach, peanut, pear, pepper, plum, potato, seed crops, small grains, soybean, strawberry, sugar beet, and tomato. I have not heard anything about the potential efficacy, but the Federal Register (4-23-97) indicates application for certain insects, fungi, and bacteria. If anyone has information concerning the efficacy of kaolin, please let me know. It may be a new twist on the 'two-brick' pest control method; you use the clay to make two bricks and smash the pests between them.

The EPA extended the tolerance for imidacloprid resulting from rotational practices in or on cucurbits until Dec. 31, 1997. The extension will allow additional time to review IR-4 request for permanent imidacloprid tolerances on cucurbits. (FR 4-25-97)

The EPA has established a temporary tolerance (expires April 1, 2001) for aminoethoxyvinylglycine (try to say it three times fast) when used as a growth regulator on apples and pears. (FR, 5-7-97)

HEALTH & ENVIRONMENT

A report released by the North Carolina Pesticide Board says that groundwater may be contaminated by legally used pesticides. Wells were tested in areas where pesticides are used regularly and areas where pesticide use is limited. No wells were sampled in pesticide mix/load sites, spill locations, or pesticide disposal areas.

Thirteen percent of the wells tested in the nonpesticide area were contaminated with pesticides. The wells were from 14 to 726 feet deep and represent major aquifer supplies of drinking water.

One hundred motoring wells were placed within 300 feet of agricultural fields, mosquito abatement areas, golf courses, etc. Out of 97 wells sampled, about 26% were contaminated with pesticides. Forty-six domestic wells were tested near the areas where pesticide contamination was detected; 17% of these wells were contaminated. Some people were told not to drink from their well.

More than 30 pesticides or pesticide breakdown products were identified.

The EPA and DowElanco do not agree on the hazards posed by chlorpyrifos. DowElanco was very critical of a recent EPA report, Review of Chlorpyrifos Poisoning Data. The Agency review said that chlorpyrifos was a leading cause of insecticide poisonings and linked the pesticide to a range of physical effects from headache to fatigue to attention span disorders. (It could explain the way I am) DowElanco accused the Agency of using unreliable data and using the information selectively to support its case. (Pest. & Tox. Chem. News, 4-16-97)

You will probably hear more about this report. If you would like a copy, contact North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture (919-733-3556). (PANUPS, 4-14-97)

Berkeley researchers Bruce Ames and Lois Gold contend that much pesticide regulatory activity is based on scientific 'myths' and other misinformation. According to Ames and Gold, synthetic chemicals are not a significant source of human cancer. Society should concentrate resources on factors that will greatly affect reducing cancer rates including smoking cessation, infection control, and diet improvement.

Although epidemiological studies have found associations between cancer and industrial pollutants, Ames and Gold report that the links are weak, the results are inconclusive, and the studies do not account for confounding factors like diet.

Furthermore, reducing the use of pesticides could increase cancer because fruits and vegetables would become more expensive. According to the Center for Disease Control, 19% of Americans below the poverty line eat five servings of fruits/vegetables per day, while 28% of Americans with greater incomes eat the recommended number of servings.

Finally, Ames and Gold said that human exposure to synthetic chemicals in the diet was negligible compared with naturally occurring carcinogens. 'Natural' chemicals are just as likely to cause cancer as 'manufactured' chemicals, and chemicals that cause cancer in rats occur widely in fruits, vegetables, herbs, and spices. (Pest. & Tox. Chem. News, 4-23-97)

Under the Healthy Indoor Air for America's Homes program, there is $2,500 per state available to support state-level education and training programs on indoor air quality. Funds are available only to states whose designated program manager attended the Indoor Air Quality Workshop in November 1996. The deadline for receipt of an action plan and signed budget forms is April 30, 1997. For further information, contact Joseph L. Wysocki, Natural Resources and Environment, CSREES, at 202/401-4980 or jwysocki@reeusda.gov.

Counties in northern California have halted the use of herbicides along highways. Californians have mobilized against spraying of herbicides -- initially 2,4-D and simazine, more recently Roundup and diuron -- on roadsides since 1972. Intense pressure from local opponents eliminated herbicide use for roadside weed control during the 1980s. Opponents included Indian tribes (one demanded an end to spraying on reservation highways), loggers, parents of school children, tourism promoters, rural mail deliverers, farmers, disabled and immune-compromised people, health practitioners and thousands of others who rarely, if ever, consider themselves hard-core environmentalists. (PANUPS, 5-1-97)

ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT

There are some thorny issues to be resolved before Congress will pass a bill to reauthorize ESA. Debates revolve around state water rights, a requirement of government agencies to clear projects with the Fish & Wildlife Service, and a requirement to focus on recovery plans that minimize adverse social and economic consequences. (Arrow Newsletter, 4-97)

CANCELED

The following methyl parathion products are being canceled at the request of the registrant. End-users may continue any unused product that they have. Dealers may sell any products already in stock.

The EPA has also canceled many other state-label methyl parathion labels (none from Ga.). These cancellations are the aftermath of the illegal use of methyl parathion in Mississippi and other states. Applicators used methyl parathion indoors, and many people were evacuated. The EPA and methyl parathion registrants have agreed. The following restrictions DO NOT affect encapsulated methyl parathion (Penncap).

  1. methyl parathion will only be available in tamper-resistant, refillable containers.
  2. a stenching agent must be added to discourage indoor use. People do not care if it kills them; they just do not want the house to stink.
  3. containers must carry a unique identification number. The retailer must record the number at the time of the sale.
  4. containers may not hold more than five pounds of methyl parathion per gallon of end-use product.

(FR 4-30-97)

Unless the requests are withdrawn by Oct. 20, 1997, the following products will be canceled at the request of the registrant. The registrant will be able to sell/distribute existing stocks for one year beyond cancellation. End-users may use any product in their possession according to the label.

Super Blue Dragon Garden Dust 5% Sevin
Dragon 13/4% Sevin Dust
Dragon Fruit Tree Spray Wettable
Dragon Copper Sulfate Granular Crystals
Triple Dragon Dust
Basus Outdoor Flea Treatment
Fenoxycarb MG2E
Cen O Phen Detergent Germicide
Cypchek
San Pheno X Disinfectant and Deodorant
G-822 MinteneDisinfectant
Spot Weeder Weed Control
Premeasured Tergisyl Disinfectant Detergent
New-O-Syl Disinfectant Detergent
Con-O-Syl Disinfectant Detergent
Lysol Brand Disinfectant (the end of an era)
Pine Scent Lysol Brand Disinfectant
Dubois GSC
BGC-3 Germicidal Synthetic Cleaner
Oxford Bryte-Foam Concentrated, Sanitizer, Rug and Uphol
Environ-D Phenolic Disinfectant
Zepopine-8
ZEP Formula 165-A
ZEP Formula 3387
KX-5050
Mint Disinfectant
Lemonene
2,4-DB Ester Selective Herbicide
Nitro 80 for Manufacturing only
Sing Phenolic Hospital Disinfectant
Super Pine Odor Disinfectant
Methyl Parathion 6E
Drexel 7 1/2 lbs. Methyl Parathion
All Season Crabgrass Preventer Plus 22-3-11 Fertilizer
RTU Phenolic Germicidal Detergent
Starficide Complete
Lice & Fly Killer-CR

MONEY

The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is offering cash and assistance to landowners and operators who establish long-term vegetative covers on eligible land. You may also receive money for maintaining eligible conservation practices. If you want more information, contact your local Farm Service Agency.

The USDA has a new program, Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), that will help farmers pay for land management practices that the farmer could not afford. Eligible practices include nutrient management, IPM, irrigation water management, grazing management, and wildlife habitat.

METHYL BROMIDE UPDATE

The University of Florida has completed 14 studies on methyl bromide alternatives for tomatoes including Enzone, Vapam, chloropicrin, Basamid, solarization, and Telone C-17. Enzone performed so poorly that it was dropped after a single trial. Nothing provided the complete pest control of methyl bromide, but a combination of Telone and Tillam came the closest to maintaining yields and controlling nematodes and weeds. Solarization was effective against weeds, but fields must be prepared and covered with plastic 7-8 weeks before planting.

Canada has granted a company the right to a process that contains, recaptures, and recycles methyl bromide. According to Knowzone Solutions, Inc., the process will recapture 95% of the methyl bromide currently released into the atmosphere. The methyl bromide is adsorbed onto zeolite. Warming the zeolite releases the methyl bromide for another round of fumigation. The company claims that the process can be used in both chamber fumigation and soil fumigation.

This development may throw a wrench into the methyl bromide phase-out. After all, the chemical alternatives to methyl bromide are not without problems. California canceled Telone because of health concerns, and it has been detected in groundwater. Tillam causes severe phytotoxicity in some vegetable crops. (Methyl bromide alternatives, 4-97)

If you want more information, surf the Net.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/mba/mebrhp.htm

According to the U.N. Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee, there are alternatives for more than 90% of methyl bromide uses. In 1992, nearly 60% of California wine grape acres were treated with alternatives to methyl bromide. The Defense Logistics Agency (part of DOD) saved $2.9 million in 1993 by using controlled atmospheres (instead of methyl bromide) on produce shipped from California to troops in the Pacific. Existing nonchemical alternatives are much healthier for people, safer for the environment, and do not deplete the ozone layer. (PANNA Home Page, www.panna.org/panna/)

If you look more closely at this information, you will see some important implications or omissions. In the first sentence, 'alternatives for more than 90% of methyl bromide' implies that these alternatives are nonchemical. In many alternative scenarios, however, other chemicals are involved, with their own environmental and health risks. When the Defense Log. Agency saved money by not using methyl bromide, they were shipping from the U.S. to U.S. troops. Controlled atmospheres may not control pests well enough to pass quarantine restrictions when international commerce is involved.

The U.S. state of Arizona has published an analysis of METHYL BROMIDE REPLACEMENT STRATEGIES by J. Hathaway and J. Giudice that presents an overview of potential possibilities for avoiding use of MBr. Copies of the softbound report, OFR 96-12, are available free from: J. Hathaway, ADEQ, 3033 North Central, Room 343, Phoenix, AZ 85012, USA. Phone: 1-602-207-4219. (IPM Net)

Some people complain about the cost of attending our recertification workshops. To help you gain perspective, a two-day workshop about endocrine disruptors is $790, not including lodging or food.

BIOTECHNOLOGY

USDA cited industry sources that said U.S. use of genetically-modified "Bt" corn will cover 5 to 6 million acres in 1997-98, up to 7% of the corn harvest.

The debates continue over BXN cotton. Most people believe that EPA will extend the bromoxinyl tolerance for cotton. Many growers already have BXN seed in the ground. However, some groups (e.g., Union of Concerned Scientists) are determined to prevent the use of bromoxinyl on cotton. They are convinced that the health and environmental risks are too great.

IPM NOTES

Here is a web site worth a look.

www.ent.agri.umn.edu/academics/classes/ipm/

It is reported to be a great source of IPM information from around the world. There are at least 43 chapters on IPM with 80 more promised. Several universities use the Web site, developed by E.B. Radcliffe and W.D. Hutchison, instead of a textbook.

Here is another, the Directory of IPM Resources.

http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/cicp/DIR/

You can search for IPM resources by discipline, by crop, or by IPM topic.

A 1994 survey of more than 600 crop producers in 25 counties of the U.S. state of Texas showed that an array of IPM tactics had helped reduce their use of pesticides and increased profits by US$106 million.

Managing Change in Agriculture http://www.reeusda.gov/new/resd/ag_econ/mchg-01.htm

This site will keep you up to date regarding USDA's efforts to keep abreast of the changing face of agriculture.


The appearance of any trade name in this newsletter is not intended to endorse that product nor convey negative implications of unmentioned products.

pguillebeau@bugs.ent.uga.edu


The University of Georgia and Ft. Valley State College, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and counties of the state cooperating. The Cooperative Extension Service offers educational programs, assistance and materials to all people without regard to race, color, national origin, age, sex or disability.
An Equal Opportunity Employer/Affirmative Action Organization Committed to a Diverse Work Force
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 18 and June 30, 1914, The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating.
Gale A. Buchanan, Dean and Director


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