University of Georgia
College of Agricultural and
Agricultural Conservation Innovation Center (ACIC) out of South
Carolina is trying to identify situations where risk concerns are a barrier to
As part of our IPM in Schools project, we discovered that a substantial number of schools regularly apply unnecessary pesticides in classrooms, buses, etc. to control head lice
The IPM coordinators for the Southern states recently met in Atlanta to discuss IPM in schools
is a new nontoxic material
that can be applied to repel birds from a variety of food
The Georgia Department of Agriculture has issued a Special Local Need label (24C) for the use of Dormex to promote uniform bud break in blueberry, peach, and nectarine
The University of California has released a new version of its popular Pests of the Garden and Small Farm
HEALTH & THE ENVIRONMENT
potential health effects of endocrine disruptors may be more
complex than we thought
Pay attention to droplet size; it is the most critical component for drift prediction
However, droplet size is not the only factor; apparently we are tracking 2,4 D into our homes
The Pacific Research Institute reports that only 2% of cancer cases are caused by man-made environmental factors; however, 40% of media coverage of cancer indicates man-made environmental factors as the cause
Beyond Pesticides (the group formerly known as NCAMP) is pushing for notification of pesticide applications in public buildings
According to the April 28 Market Bulletin, the Georgia Dept. of Agriculture is investigating a possible misuse of the canceled pesticide toxaphene
One unwanted effect of onerous U.S. pesticide regulations is to push food production to other countries
If you want to get rid of dandelions in your yard, eat them
USDA scientists report that combinations of some pesticides are much more deadly to earthworms than individual pesticides
FOOD QUALITY PROTECTION ACT
unsurprising news, some groups are frustrated with the government's
slow pace of implementing the Food Quality Protection Act
You must comment on the EPA draft science policy for probabilistic risk assessments by June 7
A lay panel unanimously recommended that the government postpone any new commercial releases or unlabeled imports of genetically engineered foods
if the situation was not complex enough, scientists think that
plants also release methyl bromide into the atmosphere
The Brassica are not all bad, however, the glucosinolates they produce are good for us and bad for pests
following products will be canceled at the request of the
registrant unless the request is withdrawn by 10-12-99
EPA received requests to delete the following uses from pesticide registrations
The Agricultural Conservation Innovation Center (ACIC) out of South Carolina is trying to identify situations where risk concerns are a barrier to IPM adoption. In most cases, we recommend that pesticides should only be applied when monitoring data indicate a significant problem. However, farmers frequently apply pesticides at-planting as insurance against a potential problem that cannot be predicted with certainty.
The ACIC works with commercial insurance companies to develop insurance policies that will protect the grower against loss if they do not apply the 'insurance' pesticide. In potato-growing states, there is typically a blight forecast based upon weather conditions. Some farmers do not spray a fungicide until extension specialists predict a high risk of potato blight. Unfortunately, the blight forecasts are not 100% accurate, and some growers apply fungicide as a calendar spray to minimize their risk of blight. With the ACIC-facilitated policy, a potato grower would be reimbursed if their crop were damaged because they waited to apply fungicide until the blight warning was issued. Other programs include split nitrogen application, conservation tillage, and corn rootworm IPM. (Gempler's IPM Solutions, April-May 1999)
This type of insurance could make a tremendous difference in the amount of pesticides that are applied. Put yourself in a grower's shoes. Imagine that you will receive little or no pay if a devastating pest outbreak occurs. Wouldn't you apply a pesticide that would prevent the devastation even it might not occur?
As part of our IPM in Schools project, we discovered that a substantial number of schools regularly apply unnecessary pesticides in classrooms, buses, etc. to control head lice. One school was even reported to spray everything an infested student touched. Guess what? These type of pesticide applications are worse that useless. They do not help control head lice; they expose your children to unnecessary pesticide risks; and they expose the school to unnecessary liability. Find out what your school does to control head lice. If the school needs assistance, it is as close as the local county extension office.
The IPM coordinators for the Southern states recently met in Atlanta to discuss IPM in schools. The basic purpose of the meeting was to share information and ideas about things that have worked (or not). Some states have made great progress with IPM in schools. Other states have done relatively little. Georgia is somewhere in the middle right now. We have begun the process, and the climate seems perfect for us to greatly reduce the application of unnecessary pesticides in schools. Ask your school if they use IPM; bring the topic up at PTA meetings. If schools want to implement IPM and reduce pesticide use, we (U.Ga., Ga. Pest Control Assoc. and others) will provide the necessary training and support.
ReJeX-iT is a new nontoxic material that can be applied to repel birds from a variety of food sources. Gempler's reports that this product causes the food to taste bad to the birds, so they seek food elsewhere. A good idea if it works, I have seen no data. For more information, contact Gempler's at 800-382-8473 or firstname.lastname@example.org
The Georgia Department of Agriculture has issued a Special Local Need label (24C) for the use of Dormex to promote uniform bud break in blueberry, peach, and nectarine. Be careful if you use in years to come before the risk of frost is passed. Dormex forces bloom; if frost occurs subsequently, you could face substantial losses.
The Georgia Department of Agriculture has issued an SLN for Vapam HL to control cylindrocladium black rot in peanuts. Peanut growers do not typically use a preplant fumigant, but losses to this disease have increased substantially in some areas. Contact your local county agent if you have questions.
The University of California has released a new version of its popular Pests of the Garden and Small Farm. The new release has been completely revised and stresses alternative pest management practices, such as biocontrol, trap crops, host plant resistance, etc. to reduce a grower's reliance on chemical pesticides. If you would like a copy, phone 800-994-8849. The price is $35. (Chemically Speaking, 4-99)
The potential health effects of endocrine disruptors may be more complex than we thought. [endocrine disruptors affect hormones, the chemicals that direct sex determination, growth, etc.] Some studies suggest that some chemicals disrupt endocrine systems at high or low doses but not at intermediate doses. Additionally, the timing of the exposure to an endocrine disruptor is a critical component of the effect. To make matters worse, the EPA lists nearly 90,000 chemicals on their list of chemicals that may need to be screened for endocrine effects. (Pesticide & Tox. Chem. News, 4-22-99)
Interpret these early results on endocrine disruption carefully. Some experimental results could not replicated, and there is scientific debate over the meaning of other findings. This field is complex, and much of the basic information remains unknown. The EPA has been left with an awesome task; FQPA requires that EPA develop a screening process for potential endocrine disruptors.
Pay attention to droplet size; it is the most critical component for drift prediction. According to David Easterly of DuPont, you can reduce the necessary drift buffer from 500 feet to 26 feet. (Pesticide & Tox. Chem. News, 4-22-99)
However, droplet size is not the only factor; apparently we are tracking 2,4 D into our homes. According to an article prepared for Environmental Sci. & Technology, 2,4 D deposition in the home (after an outdoor application) followed traffic patterns. Removal of shoes at the door and activity of children/pets were the most significant factors related to 2,4 D transport indoors. (my kids and dogs/cats track in everything else, why not 2,4 D). For more information, you can e-mail the corresponding author at email@example.com. I see no reason why these results would not apply to other pesticides applied to the lawn. The lessons here are easy; take off your shoes after you walk through a treated area, and don't let your kids/pets play in treated areas.
The Pacific Research Institute reports that only 2% of cancer cases are caused by man-made environmental factors; however, 40% of media coverage of cancer indicates man-made environmental factors as the cause. More than 70 percent of cancer cases are attributed to lifestyle components, primarily tobacco, alcohol, and poor nutrition. (Pesticide & Tox. Chem. News, 4-22-99) In other words, you are doing it to yourself.
Beyond Pesticides (the group formerly known as NCAMP) is pushing for notification of pesticide applications in public buildings. Georgia is one of 12 states that already require such notification.
According to the April 28 Market Bulletin, the Georgia Department of Agriculture is investigating a possible misuse of the canceled pesticide toxaphene. Several cows and horses are reported to have died in Madison County after consuming hay that was contaminated with toxaphene. One of two things could have happened. Some irresponsible person applied toxaphene illegally to pastures before the grass was harvested for hay. Or the hay was contaminated with toxaphene after it was harvested. Perhaps some old toxaphene stored in a barn leaked onto the hay.
We regularly hear of instances where an old, leaking pesticide has caused the death of farm animals. In two separate instances, lead arsenate had contaminated wood, and cows licked the wood. In other situations, feed was contaminated. Check your cattle loafing areas and feed storage for old pesticide containers! Don't ignore old pesticide bags or jugs because you do not know what to do.
Our recommendations are quite simple. 1) Place the pesticide into a secure container, such as a plastic or metal drum. 2) When Georgia Clean Day comes to your area, deliver the unwanted pesticide to us at no charge. It is not illegal for you to possess canceled pesticide, but you are responsible for any damage caused by leaks.
One unwanted effect of onerous U.S. pesticide regulations is to push food production to other countries. According to Pestic. & Tox. Chem. News
(4-15-99), the European Union banned fish imports from several countries because of high pesticide levels found in the fish. The more food we import, the less control we have over pesticide use and bacterial contamination.
There is also a much more serious implication. If we do not control our own food supply, we do not control our own country.
If you want to get rid of dandelions in your yard, eat them. Dandelions are a tasty addition to salads. There are even some farms that grow dandelions commercially. Don't eat dandelions that have been treated with pesticides, however, and wash them before you eat them. You don't know where that dog has been.
USDA scientists report that combinations of some pesticides are much more deadly to earthworms than individual pesticides. For example, the LC50 of metolachor was about 325 ppm; the LC50 for atrazine about 100 ppm. The LC50 for the combination was about 50 ppm. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem. News, 4-8-99)
The potential toxic synergism of pesticide combinations or combinations of other natural and/or man-made compounds is a matter of much debate. Given the universe of millions of potential combinations of chemicals, it is very likely that some toxic synergism occurs. On the other hand, how do we begin to test the mind-boggling number of combinations? In a single day, you are exposed to hundreds of natural and synthetic chemicals. Which ones should be tested? Should we test combinations of two compounds, three compounds, or all of them? Until we can develop some sort of screen (which may be impossible), we could never test all of the possible combinations.
What is the bottom line of all of this unsettling banter? Minimize your pesticide exposure, and eat those fruits and vegetables.
In unsurprising news, some groups are frustrated with the government's slow pace of implementing the Food Quality Protection Act. The World Wildlife Fund, Natural Resources Defense Council, the Pesticide Education Center, the Farmworker Justice Fund, the National Campaign for Pesticide Reform, and the Farmworker Support Committee have all resigned from the Tolerance Reassessment Advisory Committee. The Environmental Working Group had already left TRAC. (Pesticide & Tox. Chem. News, 4-29-99) Before you shout Hurrah, their resignation does not mean these groups have given up. You can expect them to use other strategies to achieve their goals.
Part of these groups' frustration is TRAC itself. What do you expect from a 50-person committee whose meetings usually include at least 100 more people? I went to one TRAC meeting; it was difficult for me to see how that group could be expected to decide when to break for lunch in less than six months.
Additionally, however, some of these organizations have unrealistic expectations. U.S. agriculture should change VERY slowly because we have a good thing. Our farmers feed much of the world, and regardless of media coverage, pesticide residues on food are not a serious health threat. Undoubtedly, we can and should reduce pesticide risks wherever possible. The EPA is acting responsibly by using cautious deliberation before overhauling our current system of pesticide regulation.
You must comment on the EPA draft science policy for probabilistic risk assessments by June 7. The EPA is trying to decide what level at which to regulate. Currently, the EPA has been using the 99.9th percentile as an interim policy. For example, if apple consumption at the 50th percentile is two per day, that means that 50% of the population eats no more than two apples per day. However, some people eat more apples. Perhaps the 90th percentile is four apples per day. Only 10% of the population eats more than four apples per day. In our fictitious example, a few people REALLY like apples; maybe the 99.9th percentile would be eight apples per day. Only 0.1% of the population eats this many apples. Upon which group should EPA base regulation? Should they establish safety regulations based on the consumption of two apples per day or eight? What if someone occasionally eats 10 apples per day? Should this rare event set the safety standard? Don't forget that the more strict the regulation, the more that it will cost society. Are you willing to pay more for apples in order to protect that small group of people that eats ten apples per day? Visit the EPA Web site http://www.epa.gov/ to find out how to comment on this proposal and others. (FR, 4-7-99)
Although European nations are not subject to the U.S. Food Quality Protection Act, the European Union is planning to review all uses of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. European regulators will conduct acute risk assessments as part of dietary risk assessments. It is not clear what kinds of data or methodology will be employed. The Europeans will face the same obstacles as U.S. regulators: a lack of reliable data and valid models to accurately estimate risks. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem. News, 4-29-99)
A lay panel unanimously recommended that the government postpone any new commercial releases or unlabeled imports of genetically engineered foods. The panel did not think that the current Australian regulatory process was adequate for evaluating genetically engineered foods, and they felt that the public had not been properly involved in the development and introduction of genetically engineered foods. (Pestic. & Tox. Chem. News, 4-8-99).
The last statement may be the most telling. For the most part, companies surprised consumers with the rapid introduction of a variety of genetically engineered products. Some public fears are unfounded and based on rumor or half-truths. However, there are some legitimate concerns about genetic engineering that companies have not adequately addressed. There are tremendous benefits to be realized from genetic engineering, but we do not want to move so rapidly that we create a public backlash or ignore signals of potential risks.
As if the situation was not complex enough, scientists think that plants also release methyl bromide into the atmosphere. Methyl bromide, an agricultural fumigant, is being phased out worldwide because it depletes the earth's ozone layer. Now, J. Gan, S.R. Yates, and J. Sims report that Brassica plants (mustard, kale, turnip, cabbage, broccoli, etc.) take bromide from the soil and release it into the atmosphere as methyl bromide. Worldwide, wild and domestic Brassica spp constitute a substantial number of plants. (Methyl bromide alternatives, 4-99)
The Brassica are not all bad, however; the glucosinolates they produce are good for us and bad for pests. Glucosinolates are sulfur compounds produced by cabbage, broccoli, kale, etc. The evolved function of these compounds seems to be defense against pests that attack the plants. In humans, these same compounds help protect us against certain kinds of cancers. (Midwest Biocontrol News, 4-99)
The following products will be canceled at the request of the registrant unless the request is withdrawn by 10-12-99. Typically, a product can continue to be sold for a year after this type of cancellation, and end-users may use all of their stock. Contact the pesticide company if you want to support continued registration. (FR, 4-14-99)
|#90 Deck & Fencepost Preservative||Morestan 4 Ornamental Miticide|
|2 Plus 2 (MCP + 2,4 D-Amine||Morestan Technical|
|2,4 D Acid Technical Flake||Ortho Grass and Weed Preventer|
|2,4 D + Dicamba Turf Care Herbicide||Prentox Carbamate Concentrate contains 10% propoxur|
|Bran-L-Bait 1.5%||R.I.S. 15 Residual Insecticide|
|Contact Roach and Ant Killer||Rainbow Wasp Killer|
|Delta Foremost 4820 Del-Kill Insecticide||Reach (not the toothbrush)|
|Dexol Preemergent Weed and Grass Preventer||Roundup Ultra|
|DS 33||Science Garden Weeder|
|Formula 296 State Roach and Ant Killer||Spot Guard|
|Four Plus Four Bromacil and Diuron||State Formula 298 RAS Residual Roach & Ant Spray|
|Hartz Blockade for Cats||Triban-D|
|Hartz Blockade for Dogs||Two Plus Two Bromacil and Diuron|
|Kennel and Yard Spray Concentrate||Zep 10-X Insecticide|
|Miller Dacthal 5G||Zep Stop|
|Miller Turf Food 12-6-6 Plus 3||Zep Tox II Pressurized Spray|
|Morestan 4 Nursery Miticide|
Additionally, EPA received requests to delete the following uses from pesticide registrations. Deletions are effective 10-12-99 unless withdrawn. (FR, 4-22-99)
Cotton: Sevin Brand 10% Bait, 50W, 85 Sprayable, 80S, 5% Bait, Carbaryl Insecticide, 99% Technical, 97.5% Manufacturing Concentrate, 80% Dust Base, XLR Plus, Rp4, 4F, 80WSP
Use on dogs and cats: Bioram 0.15% + 0.25%; Insecticide Aqueous Pressurized Spray, Bioram 0.2% + 0.2% Insecticide Aqueous Pressurized Spray, Pramex Insecticide Aqueous Pressurized Spray 0.25% for House & Garden
Apricot, pasture grasses, tobacco, artichoke, grass mixture, peas, wheat, barley, kiwi, rye, beans (dry), oats, and soybeans: Bayer Guthion 2L, Guthion Technical, Guthion Solupak 50%
All agricultural crops: Helena Diazinon 4EC
Note: the following lists are not identical. If your product is listed, check the commodities carefully.
Barley, oats, rye, wheat, soybeans, tobacco apricots, dry beans, black-eyed peas, shade trees: Gowan Azinphos-M-50W, Azinphos M 2EC, Azinphos Methyl Technical, Azinphos M 35WP, Azinphos M 35 WSB, Azinphos 50PVA
Apricot, artichokes, barley, beans (dry), oats, pasture grasses, peas, rye, soybeans, tobacco, wheat: Clean Crop Sniper 2E Azinphos Methyl, MicroFlo Azinphos Methyl 35W, MicroFlo Azinphos Methyl 2EC
Apricot, artichokes, barley, dry beans, oats, southern peas, rye, soybeans, tobacco, wheat: MicroFlo Azinphos Methyl 2EC
Apricot, artichokes, barley, dry beans, oats, southern peas, rye, slash pine, soybeans, tobacco, wheat: MicroFlo Azinphos Methyl 50W
Apricot, artichokes, rye, slash pine: MicroFlo Azinphos Methyl 50W Soluble
Apricot, artichokes, barley, dry beans, grass mixture, oats, peas, soybean, wheat, kiwi, pasture grasses, rye, tobacco, wheat: Cotnion Methyl 50W
The appearance of any trade name in this newsletter is not intended to endorse that product nor convey negative implications of unmentioned products.
The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter is a monthly journal for extension agents, extension specialists, and others interested in pest management news. It provides information on legislation, regulations, and other issues affecting pest management in Georgia.
Do not regard the information in this newsletter as pest management recommendations. Consult the Georgia Pest Control Handbook, other extension publications, or appropriate specialists for this information.
Your input in this newsletter is encouraged.
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Department of Entomology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602
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Paul Guillebeau, Assistant Professor & Extension Entomologist