THE GEORGIA PEST MANAGEMENT NEWSLETTER

Your source for pest management and pesticide news

May 21 1996 Volume 18, no. 5

NEW TOOLS

If you could only spray predators

Sensing device that sprays when it 'sees' a weed

Trichoderma harzianum biocontrol for Botrytis fruit rot

Heterorhabditis bacteriophora persisted at high levels

Grow your own predatory mites

TOLERANCES/REGISTRATIONS

Avermectin (Agrimek) recently registered for bell peppers, tomatoes, cucurbits

Pesticide: deleted uses requested

PRODUCTS WITH REQUESTS FOR CANCELLATION

Propargite is dead on ten sites

YOUR HEALTH

Four sources by which pesticide residues enter the human diet

Pesticides and Breast Cancer

Pesticides and other substances that may affect human endocrine (hormone) systems

METHYL BROMIDE UPDATE

PLOWING THEN INTERNET

IPM NOTES

The IPM Initiative program is proposing a US$200 million budget

Taxing Pesticides to Fund Environmental Protection and Integrated Pest Management

A portable lab that will allow you to positively identify a variety of plant diseases in 10 minutes

IPM IN SCHOOLS

FEDERAL NEWS

The Farm Bill finally signed

EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs and the Pest ManagementRegulatory Agency have started a pilot for joint registration

EPA's budget reduced by less than 2%

U.S. investment in agriculture research has been a good idea

Agrow reports that the top pesticide companies all recorded increases in dollar sales

Tips from the Georgia Public Service Commission to help you be heard by the Federal government

BIOTECHNOLOGY NEWS

The European Union rejected the use of genetically engineered maize

Mergers

Beware, telephone solicitors

FROM THE COURTROOM

The U.S. Court of Appeals refused to review the EPA's decision to eliminate nearly all uses of granular carbofuran (Furadan)

The Supreme Court will not hear the Alar case

Every year about 500 people in the U.S. die from heat stress

DELANEY UPDATE

CERTIFICATION TRAINING BY TELECONFERENCE

RECORD KEEPING

Complaints and concerns about the Worker Protection Standard

WPS CHECKLIST

NEW TOOLS

Georgia has been granted an emergency exemption (Sec. 18) to use Confirm 2F (tebufenozide) and Pirate 3SC to control beet armyworm and resistant tobacco budworm. There are specific thresholds and restrictions associated with the use of these pesticides. Consult your county agent for details.

Using insect predators to control pests is a wonderful idea, no residues, no contamination. The problem is that they are not always around when you need them. If you could only spray predators out when you want them . . .

Progress is being made. A combination of food-grade carrier and a gentle spray system make it possible to apply the eggs of beneficials like a conventional pesticide application. The carrier is reported to stick the eggs on plants, and the unique spray design is supposed to minimize predator mortality. The manufacturer reports that applications can be made to row crops, orchards, and vineyards. I have not seen any data on the effectiveness of this system, but it sounds interesting. I will request additional information and report here as it arrives.

If you can't wait, call them yourself. L.B. Gerig, Smucker Mfg., Inc., 22919 N. Coburg Rd.,Harrisburg, OR 97446

Phone: 1-800-333-4503

Fax: 1-541-995-6118.

Dr. James Hanks of USDA-ARS has developed a sensing device that allows your herbicide sprayer only to spray when it 'sees' a weed. The detectors sense when a green plant passes under the hood, and the nozzle is triggered to spray only when the weed is in view. Tests show that herbicide use can be reduced from 50 to 85% in soybeans with no change in control.

Cornell University has patented a strain of Trichoderma harzianum for use as a biocontrol for Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry. When honey bees and bumblebees were used to deliver Trichoderma, only 5% of the fruit was infected. Fruit infection was similar in plots treated with a conventional fungicide. In untreated plots, about 20% of the berries were infected.

One important limitation of using nematodes to control insects has been their lack of persistence. Dr. Elson Shields reports that a single application of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora persisted at high levels into the following spring and summer. This nematode reportedly infects soil stages of Japanese beetle, European chafer, and alfalfa snout beetle. You can a small quantity of the nematodes for free. Call Dr. Shields at 607-255-8428 or e-mail atmailto:elson_shields@cornell.edu. Larger amounts can be purchased from Biologic (717-349-2789).

Predatory mites can be an important part of IPM programs, especially for tree fruits. You can order several different species commercially, but the cost can be prohibitive. With a new publication from Michigan State, you can grow your own. In addition to rearing methods, this publication describes how to release and monitor predatory mite populations. Call the MSU bulletin office to order copies 517-355-0240.

TOLERANCES/REGISTRATIONS

Our vegetable entomologist, Dr. David Adams, reports that avermectin (Agrimek) is recently registered for bell peppers, tomatoes, cucurbits.

Fenoxaprop-ethyl (Acclaim, Horizon, Whip). Interim tolerances extended from April 12, 1996 to Nov. 1, 1997. The tolerances cover milk, meat (cattle, goats, hogs, horses, and sheep), meat by-products (cattle, goats, hogs, horses, and sheep), fat (cattle, goats, hogs, horses, and sheep), and wheat (grain and straw).

EPA announced approval of Green Screen Bags and Green Screen Powder, new products containing meat meal and red pepper. The products were approved for agricultural, vegetable, ornamental, turf, tree, vine, and other terrestrial crop uses.

Tefluthrin (Force). Time limited tolerances for corn (grain, field, and pop), corn (forage, fodder for field, pop, and sweet), and fresh corn (including sweet K and CWHR). Expires Nov. 15, 1997.

Sulfonium, trimethyl-salt: Tolerance on stone fruits. Time limited tolerances on cattle (fat, meat, meat by-products), corn (fodder, forage, grain), eggs, goats (fat, meat, meat by-products),hogs (fat, meat, meat by-products), horses (fat, meat, meat by-products), milk, poultry (fat, meat, meat by-products), sheep (fat, meat, meat by-products), soybean (forage, aspirated grain fractions, hay, seed, hulls). Expires 3/9/96, except soybean (4/10/96)

Additional tolerances.

Lactofen (Cobra). Tolerance on cottonseed, snap beans, and soybeans.

Clomazone (Command). Tolerance on snap beans.

Cyromazine (Triguard). Tolerance on tomato.

Iprodione (Rovral). Tolerance for cottonseed.

Tebuthiuron (Spike). Tolerance for grass (forage and hay).

Xanthan Gum-Modified. Exempt from tolerance as a surfactant.

Imidacloprid (Admire, Confidor, Gaucho). Tolerance on pome fruits.

Avermectin B1(Agrimek): Tolerance on almonds (incl. hulls), apples (incl. wet pomace), and walnuts.

Pesticide: deleted uses requested

Funginex: cranberries, asparagus

Triforine Technical: cranberries, asparagus

Karmex DF: Bermudagrass pastures

Whitmire PT14 Dairy & Farm Insect Fogger: dairy farm uses, animal uses, stanchion barn use, beef cattle operations, horse barns & stables, poultry operations, hog operations.

Lilly/Miller Casoron Granules: peach, plum, prune, nectarine

Lilly/Miller Casoron Granules 1.5%:peach, plum, prune, nectarine

Dairy-Du Spray: animal spraying

Blue Viking Star Shine Crystals: foliar nutritional mix on citrus

Blue Viking Star Glow Powder: foliar nutritional mix on citrus

RTU PCNB Seed Protectant: safflower

Imidan Technical: corn & citrus

Contact Animal Guard: use on horses

Speer Livestock Spray: use on dairy & beef cattle

Speer Stable Spray: use on dairy & beef cattle

Ziram 76WP: bean (snap, lima) celery, cucumbers, melon, pumpkin, squash, tomato, greenhouse tomato

Addtional deletions

Clean Crop Bovinol Super Stock Spray: dairy cattle spraying & barn fogging

Valent Dairy & Horse: livestock, dairy, beef, hogs, sheep, dairy barns, milking rooms, milking barns, calf pens, livestock quarters.

Preventol O Extra: wood protection

Koban 30: turf uses (other than golf courses), grass seed treatment

Koban 1.3 G: turf uses (other than golf courses), grass seed treatment

Farmrite Folpet 50W: blackberry, boysenberry, dewberry, loganberry, raspberry, blueberry, huckleberry, summer/winter squash, pumpkin, celery, cherry (red tart), citrus, gosseberry, currant, garlic

PRODUCTS WITH REQUESTS FOR CANCELLATION

Access

Apron 25W

Apron 50W

Apron 2E

Apron + Captan Seed Treatment

Derby Granular Herbicide

Double-D

I-BAC

Medal Herbicide

Metalaxyl technical

Pace Fungicide

Pennant 5G Herbicide

Pennant 5G Herbicide

Ridomil MZ58

Ridomil 5G

Ridomil/Bravo 81W

Ridomil PC 11G

Ridomil MZ 72

Ridomil MZ

Ridomil PC Granular

Ridomil 50W

Ridomil 2E

Ridomil/Copper 70W

Ryan 50

Subdue & WSP Turf Fungicide

Subdue II

Subdue Granular

Subdue 2E

These products with requested cancellation or deletions may be sold or distributed for 18 months after approval of deletion. The cancellations will approved July 16, 1996 unless the request are withdrawn.

Propargite is dead on ten sites (apricots, apples, peaches, pears, plums, figs, cranberries, strawberries, green beans and lima beans), but the National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides (NCAMP) is not happy. In a recent news release, they want EPA to suspend all propargite registrations.

NCAMP claims there is new evidence shows that propargite poses a range of acute and chronic health risks. They point to a 1986 outbreak of acute dermatitis among farmworkers and studies that link propargite to a rare form of cancer in rats. NCAMP urges EPA to consider alternative practices (e.g., cultural practices and biological controls) to replace toxic chemicals.

On the other hand, Uniroyal is asking for a propargite 408 tolerance for fresh-brewed tea. The registrant contends that propargite will not concentrate above the 408 tolerance, so a 409 is not necessary. The Delaney clause would prevent the establishment of a 409 tolerance for propargite because of its links to cancer. Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News (24:27)

If you have something to say about the recent cancellation of ten propargite use sites, say it now. Public comments will be accepted until July 2, 1996.

Snail mail: Public Response and Program Resources Branch, Field Operations Division (7506C), Office of Pesticide Programs, 401 M St., SW., Washington, DC 20460. You may send comments on paper or on disk (WP 5.1 or ASCII).

e-mail: opp-docket@epamail.epa.gov Must be ASCII, no special characters. Include the docket number [OPP-64029]. No Confidential Business Information (CBI) should be submitted through e-mail.

YOUR HEALTH

The USDA has identified four sources by which pesticide residues enter the human diet, on-farm pesticide use, post-harvest use, pesticides on imported foods, and persistent residues of cancelled pesticides. Persistent, cancelled pesticides pose a particular problem because the alteration of farming practices can do little to reduce the levels of DDT or other pesticides that remain in the soil for years. The USDA hopes to identify the greatest pesticide risks in the human diet and target research to reduce those risks.

Pesticides and Breast Cancer calls for a global ban on organochlorine pesticides (e.g., DDT). This publication examines evidence of links between environmental pesticide contamination and breast cancer. It emphasizes prevention of breast cancer by reducing pesticide use and exposure. I have not read this pamphlet, but I think the case is too complex to be explained in just 8 pages. You can get your copy from: Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, PO Box 193, Eugene, OR 97440; phone (541) 344-5044; fax (541) 344-6923;

email mailto:ncap@igc.apc.org

Cornell will also be investigating links between breast cancer and environmental exposures. There is some concern in N.Y. about clusters of what appear to be rates of breast cancer that are higher than average.

Pesticide & Tox. Chem. News (24: 21)

The EPA is also concerned about pesticides and other substances that may affect human endocrine (hormone) systems but they stop short of a global ban. The EPA met this month with industry, the environmental community, academic researchers, and others to begin developing an effective screening and testing program. If you to find out what happened, call Dr. Sheryl K. Reilly at 703-308-4774.

The National Toxicology Program will investigate five chemicals, including two pesticides (endosulfan and methoxychlor), for potential reproductive effects caused by hormonal disruption. The multi-generational study will examine fertility effects and reproductive cancers related to exposure to these chemicals. (Chem. Reg. Rep. 20: 4)

METHYL BROMIDE UPDATE

The USDA-ARS is providing a monthly publication that gives updates on research for methyl bromide alternatives from USDA, university, and industry perspectives. Irradiation, biotechnology, solarization, metam sodium, and other possibilities are examined. The price is right; it's free.

Contact Doris Stanley, USDA, ARS, Information Staff, 6303 Ivy Lane, Room 444, Greenbelt, MD 20770 phone (301) 504-5321 FAX (301) 504-5987.

There are indications that life will continue even without methyl bromide. An Australian report presents examples of successful production in flowers, strawberries, cucurbits, and tomatoes without methyl bromide.

Colombia supplies 10% of the world export market of floricultural products through cut flowers, but the cost and difficulties associated with methyl bromide have prevented its use. Composting, steam, and other pesticides are used to disinfect soil.

The Dutch promoted IPM and developed new cultural methods during their phase-out of methyl bromide. The result has been favorable; little or no loss for field-grown cucurbits and strawberries and yield increases in greenhouse operations. Key changes included techniques to chill plants, double-cropping, artificial substrates. Artificial substrates are used in 90% of cucurbit production.

Italian restrictions on methyl bromide have turned growers to increased soil solarization, pest resistant varieties, crop rotation and other pesticides. Solarization reportedly gives Italian growers satisfactory tomato yields and quality.

Michelle Horan, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia; phone (61-6) 246- 4201l fax (61-6) 246 4202;

emailmailto:michelleh@ento.csiro.au

Methyl bromide recapturing/recycling is also getting more attention. A Canadian company claims to be able to recapture 75% of methyl bromide applied to agricultural fields.

PLOWING THEN INTERNET

The Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA) offers a variety of pesticide related information. To subscribe to PANUPS send email to MAJORDOMO@igc.apc.org with the following text on one line: subscribe panups. To unsubscribe send the following: unsubscribe panups. It's free.

The Southern Region PIA (Pesticide Impact Assessment) pesticide fact sheets can be found at http://ipm.www.ncsu.edu/safety/Southern_region/contents.html

(requires Adobe reader)

N.C. Pesticide Broadcast: http://ipm_www.ncsu.edu/current_ipm/broadcast.html

N.C. Pest News: http://ipm_www.ncsu.edu/current_ipm/pest_news.html

The Current Research Information System (CRIS) is used to gather information about ongoing USDA and state research, including (1) a brief overview of the topic or related subject, (2) full descriptions of a sampling of projects related to the topic, (3) a listing of project titles, investigators' names, and research locations, and (4)

a summary of funding information for the listed projects. Theme reports currently available include "Precision Farming and Integrated Pest Management," "Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Global Change," and "Wetlands: Function, Value, and Management." http://ctr.uvm.edu/cris/theme/theme.htm

Related CRIS sites

http://cristel.nal.usda.gov:8080/ (CRIS Web Site)

http://ctr.uvm.edu/cris/intro.htm (CRISFRMS Home Page)

CSREES Home Page/CSREES UPDATE: http://www.reeusda.gov/

IPM NOTES

Government to put their money where their mouth is. The IPM Initiative program is proposing a US$200 million budget for fiscal 1996 and an increase to $205 million in fiscal 1997.

The IPM Initiative is a cooperative effort between various agencies of the USDA, along with Land-grant university programs, farmers, private consultants, and industry. It is built on a logical progression of: needs assessment; development of knowledge and technology; implementation; feedback; and accountability. The latter involves data collection to document the economic, environmental, public

health, and social impacts of IPM adoption.

Twenty-three teams of growers, consultants, research and extension staff, states and federal agencies were formed all across the U.S. in 1996 to identify priority research, education, and technology transfer needs, and developed implementation plans for specific production regions. The teams will submit their cooperatively developed proposals for a competitive review in 1997 if the funding comes through. The final phase is planned privatization of the program. Need more information? Contact B.J. Jacobsen, USDA. Phone: 1-202-401-4230.

E-mail: <BJACOBSEN@reesusda.gov>. Fax: 1-202-401-6156.

What is the best way to fund pesticide regulation and IPM? An new book, Taxing Pesticides to Fund Environmental Protection and Integrated Pest Management, contends that mill taxes are the most politically feasible (that doesn't always mean 'best'). W. Pease, J. Robinson and D. Tuden examine the 2.2% tax that California placed on pesticides. The tax seems to have had minimal effects on food prices and pesticide demand. On the other hand, California realized substantial revenue from pesticide users. The book also investigates ways to raise mill taxes and allocate those resources to fund pesticide regulation and IPM. The book is $10.

California Policy Seminar, 2020 Milvia Street, Suite 412, Berkeley, CA 94704; phone (510) 642-5514; fax (510) 642-8793; email ca.polsem@ucop.eduDisrupting mating through the release of synthetic pheromones is an important part of IPM programs for some pests (e.g., codling moth). Research from Washington state indicates that correct selection, application, and placement of pheromone dispensers can be important to the effectiveness of the program.

Pest pressure and pheromone release rate determine the number of dispensers per acre. Different brands of pheromone products vary in the rate at which they disperse pheromone. Products that release pheromone quickly require fewer dispenser/acre, but the pheromone may not last the entire season. Dispensers must be placed in the upper third of the tree to effectively disrupt mating. Additionally, placing the dispensers in the canopy provides shade and protection from the elements.

You can also get a free newsletter on related topics from the Wash. State Univ. Extension Service. If you want to get on the mailing list, contact:

T. Alway, WSU Coop.Extension, 400 Washington St.., Wenatchee, WA 98801.

E-mail: ALWAY@coopext.cahe.wsu.edu, phone 1-509-664-5540 Fax: 664-5561

An English firm has released a report on research into low and ultra-low volume delivery of biological pesticides.

FMI: D. Rhind, Micron Sprayers Ltd., Three Mills, Bromyard, Herts. HR7 4HU, U.K. E-mail: 101642.673@compuserve.com

Fax:44-1885-483043.

Phone: 44-1885-482397.

The U.S. Denver Wildlife Res. Center has a 36 page report on controlling vertebrate pests. I think it is free. Call 1-303-236-7820.

The best way to control moles in your yard may be to do nothing, according to Dr. Jim Parkhurst of Virginia Tech. He advises that you let the moles deplete the supply of grubs. There will not be enough grubs to support a mole population for three to five years. If you can wait out the moles and fill the holes, you have saved yourself the expense and trouble of pesticide application and reduced the risk of environmental contamination.

Neogen Corporation reports the development of a portable lab that will allow you to positively identify a variety of plant diseases in 10 minutes. The company claims that ALERT On-Site Crop Disease Detection Kits can detect and identify numerous species of Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia and Phythium on potatoes, soybeans, certain vegetables, and some ornamentals.

The kit uses an immunoassay to detect the disease and indicate the level of infection. Target samples are ground and used in an immunoassay performed with included materials. Color changes indicate the presence of a disease and the level of infection.

This new product could help to separate disease symptoms from injury caused by nutritional or other factors. I have not seen any unbiased information on these kits, but they may be very helpful. I will try to get more details.

Neogen Corp, 620 Lesher Place, Lansing, MI 48912, USA.

1-800-234-5333 Fax: 1-517-372-0108.

IPM IN SCHOOLS

Sorry, Integrated 'Pest Management' in schools does not include management of children. There is still nothing you can spray to control them, but I understand many children are naturally repelled by schools.

IPM in schools is becoming a big issue. Texas has mandated IPM into all school districts. A number of other regional scientists and I are trying to bring IPM to schools in the Southeast. You can find out what California is doing by calling 1-916-324-4100. Ask for Overview of Pest Management Policies, Programs, and Practices in Selected California Public School Districts. It's free. Or contact the author ssimmons@cdpr.ca.gov Or look on the WEB http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/ in the Publications section.

FEDERAL NEWS

With the Farm Bill finally signed, everyone can begin to wonder what the effects will be. According to the Campaign for Sustainable Agriculture, the impact on for family farms and the environment will be mixed. Farmers will have fewer restrictions to rotate to whatever crops they want, but the removal of federal program payments in seven years will make it more difficult for the family farm.

There are several major programs in the Farm Bill that affect family farms and sustainable agriculture. The Fund for Rural America will provide $100 million for each of the next three years for research projects, rural development, water/sewer projects, etc. The Farmland Protection Fund offers $35 million in matching funds to state or local farmland protection programs. Several conservation programs are combined to form the Environmental Quality Incentives Program. It specifically aims to reduce pollution from livestock operations. Low income communities will benefit from a demonstration program that will provide $2.5 million per year for food and agricultural projects.

EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) and its analogue in Canada, the Pest Management Regulatory Agency, have started to a pilot program for the joint registration of reduced risk pesticides with the same uses in the U.S. and Canada. Until this agreement, the Canadians and U.S. have duplicated pesticide testing. The NAFTA Technical Working Group on Pesticides devised the plan, which will allow the U.S. and Canada to share data and reviews that each country now does separately.

The rejection rate for reregistration data has fallen by one half since 1993. This news is good because the reregistration process can proceed as quickly and efficiently as possible. The EPA estimates that the pesticide industry has lost up to $1.2 billion repeating reregistration studies. The decline in rejection is credited to EPA workshops and industry training.

The EPA found out last month that their budget was reduced by less than 2% from last year. Pesticide education funds from EPA will be reduced nearly 90%, from $2.08 million to $250,000. I have already written a letter to Lynn Goldman (EPA Assistant Administrator over pesticides) and received a reply. The reply stated that some funds might be restored, but it is unlikely that a substantial portion of the cut will be regained. The whole thing seems to be battle make USDA pick up the entire tab for pesticide education. In the meantime, you can see who will pay the price if pesticide education is not adequately funded.

According to the Kiplinger Agriculture Letter (67:1), U.S. investment in agriculture research has been a good idea. Ag. research contributed to a 73% increase in agricultural productivity in the last 40 years. As a result, the American consumer spends about 7% of their personal consumption money on food. Other developed countries spend from 11% to 22%; less developed countries spend even more, up to 55%. The annual return on investments into ag. research is more than 20%.

Agrow (March 1, March 15, March 29, April 19, 1996) reports that the top pesticide companies all recorded increases in dollar sales in 1995. Global agrochemical sales rose by 11.9% to almost $29 billion the past year. Industry experts predict that the global agrochemical market will increase an average of 1.9% per year over the next five years, Latin America as a major growth area.

Do you ever complain about what the Federal government does for you (or to you)? Have you ever told them what you want? Believe it or not, the folks in Washington are interested in what you have to say because that keeps them in office. These tips come from the Georgia Public Service Commission help you be heard.

1. Address correctly, or call.

The Honorable (so and so)

U.S. Senate

Washington DC 20510

202-224-3121

The Honorable (so and so)

House of Representatives

Washington DC 20515

House 202-225-3121

The President

The White House

Washington DC 20500

202-456-1414

2. Make it clear you are a voting constituent. They work for you.

3. Be brief and to the point. A long, scattered letter will not be read.

4. Be clear about what you want. They hear about a tremendous number of issues each week; do not expect to them to remember everything.

5. Be specific. Explain clearly how the action will affect you, your business, or your family. Give them a good argument to use in debates.

6. Do not expect miracles. Other people are presenting opposite views. Compromise is often necessary. Never threaten any official. It will not help, and you could get into trouble.

7. Personal letters or phone calls are much more effective than form letters, even in volume.

8. Recruit others that feel as you do. The Senator/Representative is unlikely to notice your concern until they receive seven or more phone calls and letters.

9. Always say thanks. People typically contact Congress only to complain. They will notice it, and it may help you the next time you need a favor.

After all, if you are not telling them what to do, who are they listening to?

BIOTECHNOLOGY NEWS

The European Union rejected the use of genetically engineered maize in European agriculture; the corn is modified to produce a protein that kills lepidopteran larvae. The Union cited insufficient labeling and concern for the gene escaping into wild relatives. Ironically, the Union approved both genetically engineered rape and soybean in the last few months; recent research demonstrated a gene for herbicide resistance jumping from rape into a closely related weed. The owner of the maize, Ciba-Geigy, will try to modify labeling conditions to satisfy the Union's concerns.

Ciba is merging with Sandoz to form Novartis. The two companies agrochemical sales are reported to exceed $4.4 billion. The new corporation will also abe the world's second largest seed company. They have big plans for the biotechnology market.

Monsanto will acquire Agracetus, W.R. Grace's U.S. plant biotechnology business. Agracetus, a pioneering biotechnology company, produced the first transgenic

varieties of cotton, soybeans, peanuts and certain other crops. This acquisition will give Monsanto unlimited access to the technology.

Zeneca will merge its international seed business with Suiker Unie, a private Dutch agricultural cooperative. This partnership will create Zeneca-VanderHave, one of the world's top five seed companies.

Do you see a pattern here? Many of the big pesticide companies are posturing for big roles in the seed business because they can see the tremendous opportunity in biotechnology to manage agricultural pests. If you want to see the future, look where the money is going. We have only scratched the surface of biotechnology.

Beware, telephone solicitors are working the pesticide angle these days. The standard method of operation is an offer of a pesticide 'just like Asana' or some other national brand. The price is just too good to pass up, and the grower winds up with some commonly available pesticide that he or she could have gotten much cheaper at the dealer. Never, never, never agree to buy anything over the phone if they call you first. If it sounds like a good deal, ask them to mail you some information. Any legitimate operation will be happy to send you additional materials about their product. Tell them you want to know price, active ingredient, and concentration before you even think about buying it.

A tip of the hat to Dr. Bob Bellinger (Clemson) for passing this tip to us.

FROM THE COURTROOM

A Kansas couple hired a commercial applicator to spray 2,4 D and atrazine. Some of the pesticide drifted and damaged fruit trees on adjacent property. Because the growers had informed the applicator of the presence of the fruit trees, the judge ruled that the family had no legal responsibility for the damage.

(Chem. Reg. Reporter, 20:3)

The U.S. Court of Appeals refused to review the EPA's decision to eliminate nearly all uses of granular carbofuran (Furadan). The National Sorghum Producers Association sought the review, saying that EPA's decision to phase out granular carbofuran based on bird kills in corn and rice should not apply to sorghum. (Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 24:27)

The Supreme Court will not hear the Alar case. Their refusal will let stand the decision of a federal judge in Washington state, who ruled that growers had not proven the falsity of the '60 Minutes' broadcast that killed Alar.

HOT DAY, AINT IT?

Every year about 500 people in the U.S. die from heat stress. Late spring is one of the most dangerous times of the year for heat exhaustion and heat stroke. The weather can be very hot, but your body has had little time to become acclimated to the heat.

Follow these tips from the Ga. Dept. of Agriculture to reduce your risk.

1. Drink a lot of cool water to replace lost fluids and reduce body heat.

2. Acclimate slowly to hotter weather.

3. Hire enough help. It does no good to save money on labor if you kill yourself doing all the work.

4. Take plenty of rest breaks during the heat of the day.

5. Monitor the weather and one another. Watch for confusion or disorientation.

IMPORTANT SYMPTOMS OF HEAT STRESS!!

Heat exhaustion: fatigue, headache, dizziness, fainting, profuse sweating, fast pulse, cramps, nausea, chills, confusion, irritability. Cool the person with rest and plenty of water (if conscious). Splash them with water and loosen clothing. Don't let it become heat stroke.

HEAT STROKE IS LIFE THREATENING: sudden headache, dizziness, irrational behavior, confusion, sweating may stop, fast pulse, rapid breathing, convulsions, nausea, coma. Act quickly! Move to cooler area. Remove clothes and wrap with wet sheet if possible. Otherwise, pour water over the person and fan as rapidly as possible. If person is conscious, have them drink as much water as possible. Treat for shock and seek medical attention as soon as possible. Elevate legs and continue pouring water on victim during transport.

For more information, request EPA's heat stress guide from us (706-542-3687).

DELANEY UPDATE

The EPA has received a request to stay to prevent the revocation of propargite, mancozeb, ethylene oxide, and propylene oxide (Chem. Reg. Rep., 20:6).

The effective date for the action is May 21, unless EPA grants a stay, which seems unlikely. The loss of propylene oxide is called 'catastrophic' by industry. It is used by spice manufacturers, nut growers, and processors to control microbial contamination. This group contends that irradiation is the only alternative; it is called commercially unacceptable.

There are mixed reports on the progress of Bill 1627, which is intended to replace the Delaney clause. The House Majority Whip (Tom DeLay) reports that it is coming to a vote soon. A press secretary for the House Commerce Committee, however, said that the committee is not expected to release any action related to the Delaney Clause. (Chem. Reg. Rep. 20:6)

CERTIFICATION TRAINING BY TELECONFERENCE

In the first event of its kind in Georgia, Mark Banta, Steve Brady, and I have organized certification training via teleconference. The live training (General Standards and Cat. 24, ornamental and turf) will be conducted at Gwinnett Tech. However, participants will also be able to see, hear, and ask questions from four down-load sites at Augusta Tech, Columbus Tech, Coosa Valley Tech, and Ft. Valley State College. Seats are limited to 50 at Gwinnett Tech and 24 at the other sites; act quickly if you are interested. Call for more information.

MALTA 770-975-4121

Steve Brady, Gwinnett Co. 770-822-7700

Mark Banta , Cobb Co. 770-528-2445

Dr. Paul Guillebeau, U.Ga. 706-542-3687

John Bentley, Ft. Valley 912-825-6345

Louie Canova, Floyd Co. (Coosa Valley) 706-295-6210

Sid Mullis, Richmond Co. (Augusta Tech) 706-821-2349

Richard Smith, Muscogee Co. (Columbus Tech) 706-571-4791

We strongly recommend studying the manuals before you take the test. Call my office (706-542-3687) to order study manuals.

RECORD KEEPING

Growers must record increasing amounts of information, which creates a market for computer software to help growers maintain and review records. I have been trying to do a review of available software, but I have had little success thus far. I have been unable to run some of the programs , but I am sure it is my fault rather than a malfunction.

I have received a demonstration copy of a program called PARTS (Pesticide Recordkeeping and Tracking System). It operates through Windows, and it is designed to provide and store WPS records, RUP records, and WPS central location information. Additionally, PARTS will analyze cost and/or use by chemical, location, or date.

Sea-Tac sent me a demonstration copy of their program. Because it uses a familiar Windows format, it was easy for me to begin. The demonstration program does only a fraction of the full version will. If you order, Sea-Tac will load all of your pesticides into the system before you receive it. You select the pesticide, and it will automatically provide WPS data, create records, etc.

The main thing you pay for in this type of program is convenience. Those of you with some computer savvy can do most of these things on a good spreadsheet, and it would cost you less. On the other hand, you would have to load all of the data and set up all of the necessary calculations. PARTS or other recordkeeping software does all of those chores for you.

If you want information or a free demonstration copy of PARTS, call Sea-Tac at 1-800-654-1255, or e-mail at 73632.744@compuserve.com

By next month, I hope to have reviews of other computer software that can help you keep pesticide records more efficiently.

As we discussed before, there are a series of meeting being held across the U.S. to identify complaints and concerns about the Worker Protection Standard. Here are the highlights of the February meeting in Florida.

Comments from Workers

Some growers are not trying to protect workers, need greater punishment when employers cause worker poisoning.

Training is often a joke, presented too quickly in ways that are difficult to understand.

Workers are timid about speaking up to employers about WPS for fear of losing their job.

Mexico and Canada have NAFTA, but they don't have WPS. The U.S. is in danger of pushing our produce into Mexico and Canada.

Comments from Growers

The WPS regulations are too long and complex.

The restricted-entry intervals for some products are unjustified by the toxicity data.

Growers should not be liable for protection of migrant crews over which they have no authority.

WPS training regulations make it more difficult to hire immigrants because of language constraints.

WPS paperwork takes growers out of the field where they should be monitoring pest populations for IPM.

Posting of information in a central location is a problem when the operation is spread out The EPA has sent a list of final WPS rules to USDA for their comments. The rules modify posting and to reduce the length of time decontamination sites have to be provided for low-risk pesticides. If the USDA does not comment in 15 days, the EPA Administrator can sign the rules for publication in the Federal Register.

Finally, I will send county agents 15 pages of products with a four-hour REI.

WPS CHECKLIST

Information at central location. Provide access. Keep legible and current.

WPS Safety Poster

Nearest medical facility (name/phone/location)

Applications (post before applic. until 30 days after REI expires)

Product (name/EPA reg. no./active ingredient)

Location/description of treated area

Date/Time/REI for each application

Training. Valid for 5 years if records (or EPA card) are available.

Workers: Basic training before work. Complete training within 5 days.

Early entry Workers: Complete training before work.

Handlers: Complete training before work.

People with pesticide license (for RUP) do not need WPS training.

People with pesticide license can perform WPS training.

Decontamination. Must be within 1/4 mile of workers/handlers. Water must be clean/not hot.

Workers: Water to wash hands, soap, single use towels

Decontamination must not be in area being treated or under REI.

Handlers: Water to wash entire body, soap, single use towels, clean clothes

Also provide decontamination where PPE is removed.

Also provide decontamination in mix/load area.

In areas being treated, supplies must be enclosed.

Emergency Assistance. Act promptly if any worker/handler may be poisoned.

Provide transport to medical facility.

Supply information to medical personnel.

Product name/EPA reg. no./active ingredients

Description of pesticide use.

Details about exposure.

Information Exchange. Between agricultural establishments and commercial applicators

Commercial applicator to agricultural establishment (before application)

Area to be sprayed.

Date/time of application

Product name/EPA reg. no./active ingredient/REI

Does product require oral warning and posting?

All labeling safety requirements.

Agricultural establishment to operator

All areas that will be treated or where REI is in effect.

Restrictions on areas being treated or where REI is in effect.

During applications and REI (restricted entry interval).

No one allowed in area being treated except trained/equipped pesticide handlers.

Nursery workers 100 feet (or more) away from area being treated.

Handlers only in greenhouse during treatment or until air concentration levels on labeling are met (or 2 hr. ventilation with fans).

No workers allowed to enter during REI and contact anything that may have pesticide residues.

Notification.

Some labels require both oral warnings and posting of treated areas.

If label does not specify, you may notify workers orally or by posting.

With oral notification, inform workers of areas that are treated and REI. Tell workers not to enter during REI.

Oral notification must be done before application or before workers begin work.

Notification (cont.)

Post all greenhouse applications.

Posting must be done before application and remain until 3 days after REI expires.

Signs must be visible from all entrances into treated areas.

Early entry by agricultural workers.

No hand labor.

No early entry into areas treated with pesticides that require oral and written warning.

Workers must be 'no- contact' or equipped with PPE required by label.

Workers must receive full WPS worker training before early entry task.

No early entry within 4 hours of pesticide application.

Early entry tasks may be performed for 8 hours out of 24 hour period.

ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES REGARDING PESTICIDE HANDLERS.

Handlers must never allow pesticide to contact anyone except trained/equipped pesticide handlers.

Be sure handlers understand all labeling information for the pesticide(s) they are using.

Handlers have access to labeling throughout handling task(s).

Handlers must be trained in use of all equipment used to handle/apply pesticides.

Monitoring pesticide handlers

Sight or voice contact every 2 hours for pesticides with skull/crossbones.

Constant monitoring for handlers in greenhouses doing fumigation tasks. Monitor should have PPE to enter greenhouse.

Equipment

Inspect pesticide equipment before use.

Cleaning, repair, adjustment of equipment by trained/equipped handlers only.

PPE (personal protective equipment)

Provide PPE required by label.

Maintain/clean PPE. Clean before each day it will be used.

Store away from possible pesticide contamination.

Be sure respirators and other PPE are used properly.

Replace respirator filters/cartridges at appropriate intervals.

Provide pesticide-free area to store personal clothes and for putting on/taking off PPE.

PPE may not be taken home.

Dispose of PPE that is heavily contaminated as hazardous wastes.

Inform people who clean PPE of potential hazards and how to protect themselves.

Avoid heat stress.

Crop consultants.

To be exempt from any WPS regulations, consultants must be certified through National Alliance of Independent Crop Consultants or the America Society of Agronomy.

Employers do not need to monitor crop advisors when they enter fields before REI expires.

Employers do not need to provide decontamination site or emergency assistance after application ends.

A person is only a crop consultant when they are doing crop consultant tasks. It does not include anyone doing hand-labor like weeding, planting, cultivating, or harvesting.

Crop advisors can choose appropriate PPE for themselves and their employees. They can ignore the WPS PPE instructions on the label. They must follow all other instructions on the labeling.

This summary is intended as a checklist for agricultural employers; it does not contain all details of WPS compliance. Agricultural employers should be familiar with 'The Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides - How to Comply' developed by the U.S. EPA. Copies of the manual, WPS updates, and other information are available from Dr. Paul Guillebeau (706-542-3687, U.Ga. Coop. Ext. Service) or Doug Jones (404-656-4958, Ga. Dept. of Agric.)

Prepared by Paul Guillebeau, U.Ga. Cooerative Extension Service Putting Knowledge to Work