November 1996 Volume 18, no. 10
THINGS JUST HAVEN'T BEEN THE SAME SINCE WE LOST CHLORDANE
New termiticide regulations come into effect on October 1, 1997
FOOD QUALITY PROTECTION ACT: EMERGENCY EXEMPTIONS
Six areas that face major changes as a result of FQPA
Grass carp (white amur) are highly effective in controlling aquatic weeds on lakes and ponds
Ammo 2.5 EC (cypermethrin) now has a Federal label on broccoli, cabbage, collards, kale, mustard greens, spinach, and onions
Propiconazole has been granted a federal time-limited tolerance for sorghum
Myrothecium verrucaria (dried fermentation solids and solubles) is exempt from all food and ornamental tolerances
EPA has developed some talking pesticide labels
70% of pesticide applicators were making substantial errors when they mixed and applied pesticides
Electric insect traps do more harm than good
EPA Laws and Programs that Could Affect Producers of Agricultural Commodities A new antimicrobial division in the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs
Better directions for pesticide products intended for use on pets
Fund projects for sustainable agriculture
Changes in pesticide certification/licensing
FROM THE COURTROOM
EPA to disclose the inert ingredients of pesticides
Commercial applicator was solely responsible for 2,4-D injury
HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL NEWS
Georgia Clean Day Program
Careful By Nature
Several families in Mississippi were evacuated after exterminators sprayed their homes with methtyl parathion
Norway retailers and wholesalers will refuse to sell soybean products
THINGS JUST HAVEN'T BEEN THE SAME SINCE WE LOST CHLORDANE
In spite of its problems, chlordane was a very effective termiticide. I read of a study one time in which a wooden stake treated with chlordane was protected from termites for more than 25 years. However, extreme persistence was also viewed as one of chlordane's faults, and it was ultimately removed from the market. Since that time, termite companies have relied on chlorpyrifos and other pesticides to protect homes from termites. Compared with chlordane, the other available products are not nearly as effective, and the termite control industry has suffered.
Study the guarantee that comes with your termite control program. Very few companies will offer to repair your home in the event of termite damage that occurs after treatment. Many companies will come and treat your home every year.
The EPA has become concerned about termiticides and termite control programs for several reasons. Annual treatments may not be necessary, and they may expose you and the environment to unneccessary risks. Pesticide applications to control termites must be made near people; there is an increased risk of exposure. Not all companies provide a high level of training for their technicians. If the applicator does not know exactly what he/she is doing, your home may not be protected, and/or your family may be exposed to pesticides. These new regulations are intended to provide better protection for your home and your family.
New termiticide regulations come into effect on October 1, 1997.
1) Data will be required to show that soil treatments for termite control will be effective for a least five years. USDA data show that most currently registered materials are effective for 3-5 years. The EPA feels that consumers should not be subject to the expense and risk of repeated termiticide applications. The EPA is unlikely to grant termiticide registrations for products that are not effective for five years unless they are less toxic are provide greater benefits than registered products.
2) Pre-constuction rates of application must not be less than the minimum labeled rate, although it is generally allowed by federal regulations. States have reported that reduced rates of termiticides have not provided adequate protection from termite damage. Applications that are made after construction may be lower than labeled rates unless prohibited by state regulations.
3) Commercially applied termiticide applications can only be made by firms/individuals that are licensed by the state to apply termiticide products.
4) Specific regulations for personal protective equipment are indicated, based on the toxicity of the product.
5) All termiticides with directions for subterranean use are required to include precautions concerning possible pesticide leakage into the structure.
6) Statements concerning environmental hazards are required to match the use patterns prescribed for the product.
7) Annual retreatment is prohibited unless there is clear evidence that reinfestation or barrier disruption has occurred. Some companies have been selling an annual retreatment service even if customer may not need one. The company gets additional revenue. The customer gets additional risk but no additional protection.
8) The mixing directions are required to be very clear and simple. Calibration can be tricky for anyone; this regulation will ensure that the proper amount of pesticide can be prepared by almost anyone.
9) Regulations regarding proper pre- and post-construction termiticide applications are specifically stated, including treatment of accessible and inaccessible crawl spaces.
10) Termiticide labeling must provide specific direction for the treatment of wall voids and the use of foam treatments.
11) Labeling must include specific protections for wells and cisterns.
12) All treatment holes in commonly occupied areas must be plugged with an impervious, non-cellulose material.
13) Labels are no longer required to instructions to cover all treated soil with untreated soil. This precaution was required because of concerns over exposure to chlordane and/or heptachlor.
14) For pre-construction applications, the applicator must notify contractors, construction workers, etc. who may be exposed to the termiticide.
15) In areas where Formosan termites occur, applicators should be instructed in how to control them. The appropriate control measures are quite different from theprocedures to control subterranean termites.
16) Special label precautions are required for products that may be used to treat plenums.
17) Proposed labels should be submitted to EPA and the Association of Structural Pest Control Regulatory Officials for review.
See PR notice 96-7 for details. For additional information contact Rebecca Cool at 703-305-7690.
FOOD QUALITY PROTECTION ACT
In order to grant an emergency exemption (Section 18), the EPA must be able to establish an interim food tolerance for the pesticide. The following criteria must be considered.
Will the RfD (daily intake) be sufficient to protect infants/children?Is the chemical carcinogenic?Is there a dietary concern?Could the residues be transferred into drinking water?Is the chemical an acute toxicant?Does the chemical share a common mode of action with other pesticides?
Section 18 requests should include the following information.
Information pertaining to the possible transfer of the pesticide into drinking water, including persistence, mobility, relevant product chemistry, and available modeling. Has the pesticide been detected in drinking water?Information concerning a mode of action in common with other pesticides.Dates that the crop will be harvested.
For additional information, contact Rob Forrest at 703-308-8417.
The EPA's Pesticide Program received the 'Hammer' award earlier this month. The award was reportedly given for simplifying the process of pesticide registration. We felt that we had been hit with a hammer when we realized the implications of FQPA.
Here are the six areas that face major changes as a result of FQPA, according to Dan Barolo (the big chief of EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs).
1. Program will focus on tolerance assessment instead of reregistration.
2. The threshold for meeting health standards in bringing foods to market is increased.
3. Registrations will be periodically revisited.
4. Emphasis on: a) minor use, b) antimicrobials, c) reduced risk pesticides.
5. FQPA should foster coalitions of people/organizations.
6. Right-to-know regulations will make information in this program broadly available.
Within a few months, EPA will probably expand its list of unregulated pesticides from 31 to 65. See issue for the original list. All of the prospective candidates are foods or food additives, naturally occurring and widely available for non-pesticidal uses, or widely available with no evidence of adverse effects. Of particular interest are boric acid and diatamaceous earth; there are many products available with these ingredients in them. We will publish the complete list when it is finalized.
It may sound fishy, but grass carp (white amur) are highly effective in controlling aquatic weeds on lakes and ponds. If stocked at the proper rates, grass carp will control almost any kind of aquatic weed. From what I hear, they are more effective and a better investment that chemical herbicides. Private pond owners can obtain a permit from the Ga. Wildlife Resouces Division to stock their ponds with the fish. There are 30 or more suppliers in Georgia.
Grass carp are imported from Asia, and that was a cause for concern. What if they escaped? Kudzu, our constant companion in the South, was also imported from Asia for a good cause. If grass carp were to become established in the wild, we could probably never be rid of them.
Fish breeders came to the rescue. They develop grass carp with more chromosomes than normal. The fish develop and eat normally, but they cannot reproduce. Additionally, breeders can test fish individually to make sure the fish has the additional chromosomes. If the fish escape, they will die without establishing a population.
It is recommended that you stock from 10-25 grass carp per surface acre of water for light weed infestations; 15-30 carp for moderate infestations; and from 20-35 carp for heavy infestations. Control of fibrous weeds (e.g., pond weed) or prolific weeds (e.g., duckweed) will require a greater stocking rate. Finally, it is recommended that you install some spillway barrier to keep your investment from escaping during floods.
If you want more information, contact your local extension office.
Our extension vegetable entomologist, Dr. David Adams, reportst that Ammo 2.5 EC (cypermethrin) now has a Federal label on broccoli, cabbage, collards, kale, mustard greens, spinach, and onions. Ammo can be applied at rates from 2.5 to 5 oz per acre. Contact your local extension office for more information.
Propiconazole has been granted a federal time-limited tolerance for sorghum. It expires Oct. 31, 1998. (FR 11-13-96)
Myrothecium verrucaria (dried fermentation solids and solubles) is exempt from all food and ornamental tolerances (FR 11-14-96)
You may not read pesticide labels like you should, but would you listen to them. In cooperation with some industry partners, the EPA has developed some talking pesticide labels. The labels will relay a 20 to 45 second message encouraging the user to read the entire label and discussing health, environmental, and physical hazards associated with the product. It is not clear what or who the messages will sound like. I think they would be themost effective if they sounded like your mother. (Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 10-16-96).
In a related story, the Fall 1994 issue of Chemical Application Journal reported that nearly 70% of pesticide applicators were making substantial errors when they mixed and applied pesticides. Poor calibration, incorrect mixing, and deviation from the product labeling were estimated to cost farmers up to $12 per acre in a combination of excess pesticide and poor control.
Delaware researchers found that electric insect traps do more harm than good. Only 31 insects out of nearly 14,000 counted were biting flies. Nearly half of the insects they counted were non-biting aquatic insects, and about 14% were beneficial insects that attack pests. They add that 71 to 350 billion nontarget insects are destroyed each year by these traps. Because so many predators and parasites are killed, we may actually be protecting mosquitoes and other pests. (Ent. News, 107: 77)
'Major Existing EPA Laws and Programs that Could Affect Producers of Agricultural Commodities' has been released by EPA. This publication is supposed to be a succinct, general description of EPA requirements. Although some parts are already out-dated, it could still be helpful. I will let you know how to get a copy.
A new antimicrobial division has been established in the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs. They will be responsible for all regulatory and risk management functions for the antimicrobial pesticides. In other words, this division will make sure that the products used by doctors and hospitals really do kill germ like they should. If you want more information, contact Susan Lawrence at 703-305-5454.
The EPA will require better directions for pesticide products intended for use on pets. These types of pesticide labels have been notorius for ambigous statements, such as 'apply liberally' or 'use as necessary'. These new guidelines should make it easier (and safer) to keep those pesky fleas and ticks at bay. They are required for all products released for shipment by the registrants after October 1, 1998.
1) Direct user to read entire label.
2) Clearly indicate which animals may be treated with the product.
3) Clearly state reapplication limits; e.g., 'reapply every 2 weeks'.
4) Clearly indicate minimum age for animals. 'Do not use on kittens under three weeks.'
5) Include statements regarding debilitated, aged, pregnant, or medicated, nursing animals; as well as adverse reactions that may occur in healthy animals.
6) Include a statement regarding cholinesterase inhibition and possible interaction with other cholinesterase-inhibiting products.
7) Label 'First Aid' as 'First Aid' instead of 'Statement of Practical Treatment'. Who thought of that label in the first place?
8) Include a telephone number for information and emergency information.
See PR notice 96-6 for details. Contact the Labeling Unit at 703-308-8641 for more information.
If you want to comment on the EPA's State Management Plans in order for states to use certain pesticides (triazines, alachlor, metolachlor), you need to respond by Dec. 6. See the June 26, 1996 Federal Register for the original notice. Most states have complained that the monitoring requirements will be too expensive. You can contact Jim Roelofs at 703-308-2964 for more information. (FR 11-6-96)
You also have until Dec. 6 to comment on an EPA rule to exempt sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate from food tolerances. For information, contact Denise Greenway at 703-308-8263. (FR 11-6-96)
Here is an opportunity to fund projects for sustainable agriculture. Any producer or grower organization can apply for a grant to:
enhance environmental quality and natural resource base on which agriculture is basedmake the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources, integrating natural biological cycles and controls when possiblesustain the economic viability of farm operationsenhance the quality of life for farmers/ranchers and society as a whole.
The program has two broad areas: research and education. If you want a copy of the Producer Grant Program and an application, call my office at 706-542-3687.
The Ga. Department of Agriculture intends to make the following changes in pesticide certification/licensing for restricted-use pesticide applicators.
1) a passing score for all tests will be 70%.
2) no one can take the same test more than once in a month nor more than twice in six months.
3) the Dept. will keep all scores for one year from the date of the first examination.
4) applicants must retake all tests if they do not pass the general standards test and at least one categorical test within a year of the initial examination.
FROM THE COURTROOM
In a case that could have many impacts, a district judge ordered EPA to disclose the inert ingredients of pesticides. In a 1991 case, two environmental groups requested the complete formulas of six pesticides under the Freedom of Information Act. The EPA refused, until now. However, the court allowed for some of the inerts to remain protected. (Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 10-23-96)
In Kansas, the court ruled that a commercial applicator was solely responsible for 2,4-D injury on adjacent property. The farmer had informed the applicator that the neighbors had a garden and many fruit trees. Both the garden and the trees were severely damaged. The neighbors took the farmer and the applicator to court. The court's decision was based on: the applicator was licensed to apply pesticides, and the farmer did not act to apply the pesticides beyond hiring the applicator. The case against the farmer was thrown out of court. (the Label, 10-96)
Watch that rinsewater! The Wilbur-Ellis Co. was fined $25,000 under the Clean Water Act. The release reportedly killed 40,000 fish. (Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 11-13-96)
HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL NEWS
The Ga. Dept. of Agriculture reports that Dooly County has completed a new recycling facility. The program in Dooly has been the largest in the state for a few years, collecting more than 25,000 containers per season. Undoubtedly, this program has saved a tremendous amount of landfill space and turned trash into something useful. Way to go!!
In related news, recycling programs have been established in Jefferson, Johnson, and Washington counties. With these additional efforts, we hope to break last year's collection record of 171,300 pesticide containers. The containers are chipped and remanufactured into pallets for shipping pesticides. The pallets are more durable than wood; no trees are cut down to make them; and they can be recycled into more pallets.
The Georgia Clean Day Program collected 33,360 pounds of waste pesticides in Screven County in September. At no cost to the participants, the pesticides were collected and disposed of. Way to go!!
We are trying to expand the program to the entire state, but we need to know how much pesticide there is to be collected. If you receive a pesticide survey from us, please take the time to complete it. Your cooperation will be essential if we are to expand this valuable program.
The Careful By Nature project is a cooperative effort to promote cotton production and environmental stewardship. Pesticide use in cotton has fallen dramatically since the eradication of the boll weevil, and farmers are some of our most environmentally conscious citizens. However, few people realize it. Through the funding of the Cotton Foundation and Ciba Crop Protection, the Careful by Nature group is trying to change things.
A media event was recently staged at the cotton farm of Ronnie Everidge in Unadilla, Ga. Newspapers, television news, and farm jounals turned out to learn about container recycling, genetically engineered cotton, 'no-till', and precision pesticide application. The information was transmitted via these media to households across the state.
Our goal is to change the general view that agriculture is an environmental villian. If you want more information, give me a call at 706-542-3687.
Several families in Mississippi were evacuated after exterminators sprayed their homes with methtyl parathion. Methyl parathion is a highly toxic organophosphate insecticide that can be used safely in outdoor agricultural crops, but it is not intended for indoor use. In a similar incident several years ago, two boys died. (Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 11-13-96)
According to Environmental Sci. & Technology (11-96), people regularly transfer pesticides from the lawn to the carpet on their shoes and/or clothes. The residues may remain in the carpet and other furnishings for long periods because they are protected from degradation by the weather. Entrway mats reduced the amount of pesticide transferred to carpets by 25-33%. These findings are of concern because of the potential exposure of small children. There was no evidence of adverse health effects caused by these residues, but we should all be very careful when we apply pesticides around our homes.
One lab found no evidence of synergistic interaction that affected human estrogens. Another report stated that vinclozolin inhibited androgen receptor binding in rats. (Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, 11-6-96)
APIS reports that an IPM program can be useful to control Varroa mite in honeybee colonies. The program calls for the use of oils such as tymol, eucalyptus, camphor, or menthol in the fall when few brood were present. In addition, sticky boards can trap mites that fall from bees, preventing their return to the bees. Finally, a drone foundation is placed in the brood nest. When the foundation has been populated with drone brood, the comb is removed and destroyed. Varroa mites prefer drone brood over workers. (APIS, 10-96)
Norway retailers and wholesalers will refuse to sell soybean products from the U.S. unless products from genetically engineered soybeans are clearly identified. Switzerland passed a law requiring similar labeling last year. A survey indicates that Germans may not want genetically engineered foods. Australia, Japan, and the U.S. have approved genetically engineered corn and soybeans, concluding they pose no environmental or health threat. (Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News 10-23-96)
Registrants have requested cancellation of the followingn products. Supplies in the hands of dealers and user may sold or used until exhausted, unless other rules state otherwise. Unless withdrawn, the requests become effective in 90 days (Feb. 4, 1997).
Contact James Hollins for more information at 703-305-5761.
10% Bromacil Pellets Weed Killer
2.5 Bromacil Liquid Weed Killer
2% Bromacil Liquid Weed Killer
4% Bromacil Granular Weed Killer
7.5% Bromacil Liquid Concentrate
Anchor Flea, Lice and Tick Spray
Bioban 2001 Antimicrobial Agent
Black Leaf Flea & Tick Killer
Dupont Hyvar DF Herbicide
Dupont 21.9% Bromacil Liquid Concentrate
Dupont 80% Bromacil Powder
Ecto-Soothe Carbaryl Shampoo
Farnam Non-Aerosol Deflea/Detick Spray
Feul-Prep 1000Flea, Lice & Tick Powder Contains Sevin
Herbal Flea Collar
Hi-Yield Liquid Edger
R & M Insecticide Pain Additive
Traflan E.C. 44.5%
Treflan 80 D.C.
Trilin Dry 80
Registrants have requested that the following uses be deleted from their pesticide registrations. Unless withdrawn, the requests become effective in 90 days (Feb. 4, 1997). Products with previously approved labeling may be distributed for 18 months, unless other rules state otherwise.
Pesticide; deleted sites
Drexel LV6 Weed Killer; Sugarcane, aquatic applications (for aquatic weeds in lakes, ponds, drainage ditches and marshes)
Drexel #4 Low Volatile Ester Herbicide; Sugarcane
Flutix 4EC; Mint
Flutix 4EC ATT; Mint
Flutril 5EC; Mint
KGRO Sevin Brand Insecticide 10 Dust Formula II; Pet application uses
Sevin Plus MultiPurpose Garden Dust; Pet application uses
Thiram Technical; Bananas, celery, onions (dry bulb), sweetpotatoes (preplant dip only), tomatoes, lawns/grasses
Treflan HFP; Forage legumes
Treflan TR-10; Forage legumes
Trifluralin Technical; Forage legumes
Trifluralin Technical; Forage legumes
The EPA will not reduce the 12 hour REI for insecticidal soaps. Although these are considered to be 'soft' pesticides, the potential for eye irritation places these products in Toxicity category II. To be considered for a reduced REI, the pesticide must be in Tox. category III or IV. Category II eye effects include reversible corneal opacity and eye irritation. Category III has eye irritation only; IV has no eye irritation.
The appearance of any trade name in this newsletter is not intended to endorse that product nor convey negative implications of unmentioned products.
The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter is a monthly journal for Extension agents, Extension specialists, and other interested in pest management news. It provides information on legislation, regulations, and other issues affecting pest management in Georgia.
Do not regard the information in this newsletter as pest management recommendations. Consult the Georgia Pest Control Handbook, other Extension publications, or appropriate specialists for this information.
Your input in this newsletter is encouraged.
If you wish to be added to the mailing list, just call us at 706-542-3687 or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Paul Guillebeau, Assistant Professor & Extension Entomologist