The University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences
Cooperative Extension Service

Georgia Pest Management Newsletter

Your source for pest management and pesticide news

September 1997/Volume 19, no. 7

FOOD QUALITY PROTECTION ACT

NEW TOOLS
Reduced-Risk Pesticides
Muscovy ducks removed flies

HEALTH & ENVIRONMENT
Nearly 13 tons of waste pesticides collected in Americus
Flea beetles from Italy will be released to help control the imported musk thistle
Farmers with high stress are 1.7 to 3.3 times more likely to be injured on the farm

BIOTECHNOLOGY
The EPA established an exemption from tolerance for the following biological pesticides
Roughly 61% of 235 crop species had one or more relatives considered to be a weed in Australia
DowElanco and other pesticide companies investigating consumer concerns about pesticides
NEVER treat firewood with any type of pesticide
Honeybees can be used to study pesticide residues, other contaminants in nearby fields

CANCELED
Registrations for the following products canceled at request of the registrants

METHYL BROMIDE

FEDERAL NEWS
USDA and EPA to work together for minor crops
The EPA has released their latest estimates of pesticide usage
The Consumer Labeling Initiative is a partnership between EPA and industry

MONEY
Georgia farm income ($6.75 billion) was at all-time high in 1996
The UGA Extension Service and the College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences are being squeezed in the state budget

WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD

IPM NOTES
A recent survey in New Jersey indicates that growers are willing to adopt IPM, but they do not know exactly what practices define IPM
The following guidelines may help you make decisions when controlling weeds



Food Quality Protection Act

Before FQPA, the regulatory definition of a pesticide was a chemical that was used in the production, storage, processing, or transportation of food. The FQPA defines a pesticide independent of its use. What possible difference does it make?

As FQPA is interpreted, all pesticide residues on food must have a tolerance, regardless of the level of the pesticide residue or how it came to be there. If any level of pesticide drifts onto an unlabeled crop, the crop may be considered adulterated and seized by FDA. Any level of pesticide that occurs in an unlabeled crop as a result of crop rotation would also be adulterated.

The IR-4 Newsletter suggests a logical solution. Establish a generic tolerance for all unavoidable, inadvertent residues. Canada has a similar system established at 0.1 ppm. Tolerances are set lower or denied in situations where there are special concerns about a pesticide.

(IR-4 Newsletter, Summer 1997)

Pesticide registrants will have to pay more to keep their products on the market under FQPA. Maintenance fees for pesticide registrations have been $700 for the first product and $1400 for each additional product. Under the new fee schedule, the first product will cost $950, and each additional product will cost $1900. No registrant will pay more than $55,000 for the first 50 products, and no one will pay more than $95,000 total. Small businesses will pay no more than $38,500 for the first 50 products and a maximum of $66,500. The maintenance fees for 1998 are due by Jan. 15, 1998.

New Tools

Since July 1993, there have been 32 applications for reduced-risk pesticides. Nineteen of the applications were accepted, and 13 products have been registered. (IR-4 Newsletter, Summer 1997)

Hexaflumuron (Recruit): termiticide
Flumiclorac (Resource): herbicide (corn, soybean)
Methyl Anthranilate (Rejex-It): bird repellent
Tebufenozide (Confirm): insecticide (walnut)
Hymexazol (Tachigaren): fungicide (sugarbeet)
Fludioxonil (Maxim): fungicide (corn, sorghum)
(Cadre): herbicide (peanut)
Mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold): fungicide
Spinosad (Tracer): insecticide (cotton)
Azoxystrobin (Heritage): fungicide (turf)
Alpha-Metolachlor (Dual Magnum): herbicide
Emazamox (Raptor): herbicide (soybean)

A tolerance has been established for thiodicarb and its metabolites on broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and leafy vegetables (except Brassica). (FR, 8-22-97)

Muscovy ducks removed flies from an enclosed structure 30 time faster than traps or other control devices (including seventeen 2nd grade boys with fly swatters, but not including pesticide applications). In screen calf pens, adult flies and maggots were eliminated. The ducks were less effective if new flies were constantly entering the control area. The ducks did not require additional feed if they had access to spilled animal feed and livestock manure. Finally, the ducks were sold at the end of the fly season for twice the cost invested in the ducks. However, ducks will contribute to the task of manure clean up. (Journal of Econ. Entomol., 86(6) via Midwest Biological Control News, 9-97).

Health & Environment

In a real demonstration of what teamwork can do, nearly 13 tons of waste pesticides were collected in Americus on August 12. The Cooperative Extension Service, the Georgia Department of Agriculture, the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Farm Bureau, Georgia Crop Alliance, Georgia Agribusiness Council, the Southern Crop Protection Association, and farmers worked together to make Georgia a safer place for all of us. Thanks to everyone who makes Georgia Clean Day a success!!

There is much work left to be done, however. A recent survey indicates that more than 2000 farms in Georgia have pesticides that cannot be used.

If you have pesticides that cannot be used, do not despair. It is not illegal to have cancelled pesticides, but do not use them or let them leak. Store the pesticides very securely. It is a top priority for the Georgia Department of Agriculture and the Extension Service to bring Georgia Clean Day to every community with waste pesticides.

Flea beetles from Italy will be released to help control the imported musk thistle. Initial release sites include DeSoto KS, Comfort TX, and Hagerstown MD. Flea beetles will join two weevils and a rust fungus that have been released. (IOBC-NRS Newsletter, Summer 1997)

Farmers with high stress are 1.7 to 3.3 times more likely to be injured on the farm. However, the researchers do not know if stress causes accidents or if accidents caused the stress. Try to not to have an accident and try not to worry about it. (Clemson Agromedicine Program Update, 9-15-97

Biotechnology

The EPA established an exemption from tolerance for the following biological pesticides.

(FR, 8-22-97)

Dr. B. Sindel reports that roughly 61% of 235 crop species had one or more relative considered to be a weed in Australia. If these crops are genetically engineered, there is some risks that the new genes may 'escape' to the wild relatives. Based on preliminary data, Sindel grouped crops according to potential risk of outcrossing transgenes. Crops with a high risk included rice, potato, sorghum, barley, celery, carrot, sunflower, onion, and vetch. Among crops with low riskwere peanut/groundnut, sugarcane, wheat, maize, tomato, chick-pea, and soybean. Additional research will be needed because the risks may vary greatly from region to region.

Dr. Sindel recommended that transgenic crops posing a high risk of gene escape to weedy relatives should not be released on a commercial scale until sufficient safeguards were developed and deployed to prevent the transfer. For more details, contact Dr. Sindel at bsindel@metz.une.edu.au. (WEED WATCH, 6, March-June 1997)

DowElanco and other pesticide companies have been investigating consumer concerns and opinions about pesticides. Here are some arguments concerning pesticides that were not effective (how many have you used). (Pesticide Notes, 2-94 via Pesticide Coordinator Report, 9-97)

"There is a one in a million chance of an adverse effect." People may not grasp that ratio, and they may feel that they might be the 'one-in-a-million'.

"We feed the world." This statement was not considered to support pesticide use.

"Natural carcinogens are everywhere." Many people feel that we have evolved with these natural carcinogens, so they are less dangerous.

Pointing out the drawbacks of organic foods does not justify the use of pesticides. It was more effective to explain the rigorous process that pesticides must undergo before they are registered. Few people understand how pesticides are tested and regulated. The following statements helped to assuage people's fears about pesticides.

Before a pesticide is registered, more than 120 tests are performed over a period of 8-10 years at a cost of $35-40 million.

Only about one chemical in 20,000 goes from the laboratory to the field. After registration, pesticides are monitored by EPA, FDA, states, and environmental/public health groups.

The National Cancer Institute points out that there is no scientific proof that pesticide residues on food cause cancer in humans. Most medical experts agree that the benefits of eating fruits and vegetables far outweighs any risk.

If laboratory mice are given enough of a pesticide used on oranges, it will cause health problems. A child that weighs 40 pounds would not consume that much pesticide if he/she ate 340 oranges a day for the rest of his/her life.

NEVER treat firewood with any type of pesticide. When you burn the wood, toxic fumes could be produced. Stack your wood off the ground in an unheated shelter to help control insects. Store little or no firewood in the house. (Georgia Market Bulletin, 9-17-97)

Honeybees can be used to study pesticide residues or other contaminants in nearby fields. As honeybees go from plant to plant, they collect pollen, nectar, water, and dust particles. Dr. J. Bromenshenk and his team have devised a method to collect air from each beehive and analyze the samples for chemical residues. (Science News, 5-24-97)

Canceled

The following products will have uses deleted from the registration at the request of the registrants. The actions will become final on Feb 23, 1998. Registrants will be able to continue to distribute products for one year after that date. End-users may use any product according to the label until supplies are exhausted. (FR, 8-27-97)

Kill-Ko 5% Sevin Dust: ornamentals Sevin 10 Dust: trees (filbert, apple, cherry, peach, pear, plum)
Dexol Sevin 5% Garden Dust: dogs & cats Black Leaf Liquid Flowable 2 lb Sevin: ornamentals
Ortho Seven 10 Dust: trees Black Leaf Liquid Fruit Tree Spray: ornamentals
Sevin Brand Carbaryl Insecticide Dust: shade trees Agway Sevin Garden Dust: trees
10% Sevin Dust: ornamentals Freshgard 20: apples
Royal Gard 5% Sevin: ornamentals Anderson's Pest Arrest 5% Dust: dogs & cats
R&M Garden & Kennel Dust 5%: ornamentals Anderson's Pest Arrest 10% Dust: dogs & cats
R&M Garden & Kennel Dust 10%: ornamentals Ford's Sevin 5% Dust: trees
R&M Flea & Tick Powder 5%: ornamentals Ford's Sevin 10% Dust: trees
R&M Flea & Tick Powder #2: ornamentals Security Brand Big 10 Dust: trees
SMCP Flea Scat: ornamentals Security Brand 5% Sevin Garden Dust: trees
SMCP Sevin 5% Dust: ornamentals Acme 1% Rotenone Garden Guard: terrestrial food crops
SMCP Sevin 10% Dust: ornamentals Dorsan Insecticide: indoor broadcast, total release foggers for indoor (except greenhouse), coating products, pets, animals (indoor), aquatic uses, paint additives, application in sewer manholes (?)
Miller 1.75% Sevin Dust: ornamentals Sevin 10% Dust: trees
Science 5% Sevin Dust: ornamentals Sevin Dust-5: trees
Green Light Sevin 10% Dust: ornamentals DIBROM Concentrate: rangeland
Sevin 5 Dust: trees (filbert, apple, cherry, peach, pear, plum) General Sevin-5 Insecticide: trees
General Sevin-10 Insecticide: trees


Registrations for the following products will be canceled at the request of the registrants. The actions will become final on Feb 23, 1998. Registrants will be able to continue to distribute products for one year after that date. End-users may use any product according to the label until supplies are exhausted. (FR, 8-27-97)

Caparol & MSMA with Surfactant Herbicide Rockland Rabon Livestock Dust Shaw's Premium Weed & Feed Formula 4
Caparol Accu-Pak Morestan 25% Wettable Powder Miticide, Fungicide, Insecticide Vertagreen Weed and Feed
Basus Outdoor Flea Treatment Morestan 25% Wettable Powder in Water Soluble Packs Sk-368 Weed Killer
Fenoxycarb MG2E Ectogard House and Carpet Spray with Insect Growth Regulator Microbicide #51
Riverdale MCPP LV 4 Ester Ectogard Fogger with Tenocide Insect Growth Regulator Dormant Spray Oil
Whitmire Regulator PT 410 Ectogard Pet Spray with Tenocide Insect Growth Regulator CO-Ral Cattle Insecticide Pour-On
Whitmire PT 400 Ultraban Brand Flea Killer & Insect Growth Regulator Ectogard Aerosol House & Carpet Spray with Tenocide Insect Growth Regulator KRS with CO-Ral Spray Foam Insecticide
Whitmire Regulator PT-421 Royal Brand Beetle Buster Finnaren & Haley Stain and Wood Preservative
Whitmire PT 412 Ultraguard Flea Growth Regulator Helena Clean-Up Weed & Brush Killer Garden Weed Preventer 2.5-G Dacthal Granules
PT 400 HO Ultraban Brand Flea Killer & Insect Growth Regulator Setre Simazine-Bromacil 90 WP Mitac WP
Whitmire PT 422 Total Release Fogger Shaw's Premium Weed & Feed 32-4-4 MTP Phenolic germicidal Detergent
Whitmire TC-167 HO Shaw's Premium Weed & Feed Formula 3 Insecticide Aerosol D Phenothrin, 2%

Methyl Bromide

The EPA has released volume three in their series of methyl bromide alternatives; this issue focuses on soil, commodity, and structural uses. If you want to see the entire book, visit the Web site http://www.epa.gov/ozone/mbr/mbrqa.html

The soil alternatives included composting, flooding, grafting to disease-resistant rootstock, hydropronic production, metam sodium, steam, and telone/chloropicrin/tillam. The commodity/structural replacements were caronyl sulfide, controlled atmospheres, and phosphine/carbon dioxide.

These alternatives are not expected to be perfect replacements for methyl bromide. However, these tools can be effective against many of the pests for which methyl bromide is currently used. In combination or as part of a larger IPM program, these alternatives may help establish effective pest management strategies in the absence of methyl bromide. (Methyl Bromide Alts, 9-97)

Federal News

The USDA and the EPA have agreed to work together for minor crops. A minor crop is grown on less than 300,000 acres, or the pesticide use would not provide a sufficient economic return for pesticide companies to register the pesticide or maintain registration. Approximately 70% of all pesticides are registered for a minor use. The goals for the EPA minor crop team are:

1) obtain/use the best residue data for each crop, 2) work more closely with minor-use growers early in the regulatory process, 3) promote registration of safer products for minor uses. The USDA has established a new Office of Pest Management that will centralize all pest management activities. The new USDA office and the EPA team will cooperate to implement FQPA and provide assistance to minor pesticide uses.

The commodities in this list are all of the U.S. crops that are not minor use: almond, apple, barley, beans, canola, corn, cotton, grape, hay, oat, orange, peanut, pecan, popcorn, potato, rice, rye, sorghum, soybean, sugar beet, sugarcane, sunflower, tobacco, tomato, turf, and wheat. (EPA Press Advisory, 9-12-97, and EPA FYI, 9-97)

If you want more information about minor use issues contact Steve Johnson (EPA, 703-305-7090), Al Jennings (USDA, 202-720-5375), or Richard Guest (IR-4, 732-932-9575).

The EPA has released their latest estimates of pesticide usage. They report that agricultural pesticide use remains steady, with variations due to seasonal weather patterns and pest populations. Herbicide use has increased, primarily due to more acres of corn, soybean, cotton, rice, and sunflower. The average farm spent nearly $4200 for pesticides in 1995. The use of conventional pesticides for nonagricultural use has declined.

A total of 2.3 billion lbs of pesticides were used in the United States. Approximately 1.2 billion pounds of conventional pesticides make up about 27% of all pesticides. Wood preservatives (700 million lbs) account of 16% of all pesticides; specialty biocides (e.g., to control bacteria in cooling towers) are about 6% of all pesticides. Chlorine and hypochlorites (water purification and swimming pools) make up more than 50% of all pesticides used in the U.S.; more than 2.3 billion lbs of these chemicals are used each year. (EPA Press Advisory, 9-5-97)

The Consumer Labeling Initiative is a partnership between EPA and industry to improve pesticide labels on homeowner pesticides; many of the changes will appear in the next two years. Labels typically carry ambiguous directions for use, such as 'apply when necessary' or 'apply thoroughly.' The EPA and their partners are announcing the first improvements after a year of gathering information about what consumers want and need on pesticide labels.

To improve labels, companies will be encouraged to: 1) include toll-free telephone number on each product to provide emergency information about the pesticide; 2) use common names for pesticides instead of complicated chemical names; 3) replace 'Statement of Practical Treatment' with 'First Aid'; 4) replace 'Inert Ingredients' with 'Other Ingredients'.

Additionally, many pesticide labels will carry simplified first aid statements that most consumers can understand and follow. Products will have information about the ingredients that is more meaningful to consumers.Finally, home-owner pesticides will have consistent information about pesticide storage and disposal.

If you want to comment or suggest other revisions:
write OPPT Document Control Officer (7407)
AR-139-Consumer Labeling Initiative
EPA
401 M. St., SW
Washington DC 20460

call Amy Breedlove (703-308-9069)
Mary Dominiak (202-260-7768)
Julie Lynch (202-260-4000)
Jean Frane (703-305-5944)

surf http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/labeling

Money

Georgia farm income ($6.75 billion) was at all-time high in 1996, twelve percent above 1995. Poultry was up 23%; crops up 3%; peanuts down 7%; vegetables down 13%; nursery/greenhouse up 16%; tobacco up 19%; corn up 57%.

Poultry accounted for nearly 44% of the total cash receipts; crops were 40.5% of the total. Cotton was about 13% of the total; all vegetables 6.4%; livestock 11.6%.

Expenditures increased 10%, with feed purchases increasing 29%. Pesticide costs increased 7%. (Georgia Market Bull., 9-10-97)

The U.Ga. Extension Service and the College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences are being squeezed in the state budget. Since 1991, the College has lost more than $18 million in funding and 432 full time positions (311 in Extension). If measured in lost capacity to conduct research and outreach programs, the losses are estimated at $20 million ($14.8 million in Extension).

Every dollar invested in research generates $8.35 in direct benefits in increased agriculture production. Every reduction in research/extension investments means a reduced role for agriculture in Georgia's economy. (Georgia Farm Bureau News, 8-97)

Worker Protection Standard

We and the Georgia Department of Agriculture (GDA) want you to follow WPS. It is the law; it protects workers; and it is our job to help you comply. Additionally, we would rather help you comply through education, rather than try to make you comply through fines or other penalties.

There have been 12 mock inspections conducted throughout the state by GDA. In cooperation with Georgia Young Farmer Teachers, Cooperative Extension, and the Georgia Green Industry, these inspections are an educational event rather than a regulatory one. Growers from the local area come to observe and ask their own compliance questions. So far, 300-400 growers have attended.

If you would like to help schedule an educational inspection, contact Doug Jones at GDA (404-656-4958). Tell him Paul sent you. (Ga. Fields & Forests, Summer-97)

IPM Notes

A recent survey in New Jersey indicates that growers are willing to adopt IPM, but they do not know exactly what practices define IPM. IPM growers and non-IPM growers alike identified regulations, crop values, and labor costs as primary obstacles to continuing to farm. Marketing was found to play a key role in IPM adoption.

Greater access to state, university, and privately sponsored IPM programs (information, counsel, demonstrations) would help accelerate IPM adoption. Different groups did not agree on the best source of IPM information. Surprisingly, county agents and chemical reps placed greater emphasis on neighbors as a source of information; the growers did not consider their neighbors as valuable for information. If you want more details, contact G.C. Hamilton at hamilton@aesop.rutgers.edu (Amer. Entomologist, Summer-97)

The following guidelines may help you make decisions when controlling weeds. They are broadly based on recommendations from the Weed Science Society of America.

  1. Scout fields: before applying a herbicide; determine weed species present.
  2. Evaluate economics: is herbicide application justified by increased returns?
  3. Consider use of alternatives: cultivation, delayed planting, using weed-free crop seeds.
  4. Rotate crops: avoid growing the same crop in the same location season after season.
  5. Limit herbicide application: minimize usage of a single herbicide, or herbicides with the same site of action, during a growing season.
  6. Vary herbicides: use mixtures or sequential applications.
  7. Scout fields: after applying herbicides, note weed escapes or species shifts.
  8. Eliminate weed seed transfer: clean off equipment and clothing before moving from an infested area.

(Weed Technology, April-June 1997)

The appearance of any trade name in this newsletter is not intended to endorse that product nor convey negative implications of unmentioned products.


Dear Readers:

The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter is a monthly journal for Extension agents, Extension specialists, and others interested in pest management news. It provides information on legislation, regulations, and other issues affecting pest management.

Do not regard the information in this newsletter as pest management recommendations. Consult the Georgia Pest Control Handbook, other Extension publications, or appropriate specialists for this information.

Your input in this newsletter is encouraged.

If you wish to be added to the mailing list, just call us at 706-542-1765.

Or write us:

Department of Entomology
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602
E-mail: pguillebeau@bugs.ent.uga.edu

Sincerely:
Paul Guillebeau, Assistant Professor & Extension Entomology


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